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Global warming as a theme

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An emphasis on learning facts vs learning big ideas. No storyline chapter by chapter approach ... 1807 sodium and potassium ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Global warming as a theme


1
Introduction
  • Global warming as a theme
  • The chemicals of global warming
  • Chemistry big ideas
  • Periodic Table a first look
  • Discovery of elements
  • The birth of matter
  • The evolution of matter

2
Global warming fact or fiction?
  • Global warming is real
  • Scientific consensus supported by immense amount
    of data
  • Historical information about global temperatures
  • Known facts about the characteristics of matter
  • Sound theoretical projections
  • Human effects vs natural cycles
  • The other side
  • No scientists with training in relevant science
  • Proponents are scientists with out of subject
    training or with bogus credentials
  • Political, economic and religious agendas
  • Funding by foundations and business groups with
    interests that would be damaged by significant
    response to global warming

3
Chemicals connected to global warming - 1
  • Elements
  • Hydrogen, H (H2), Oxygen, O (O2), Carbon, C,
    Calcium, Ca
  • Nonmetals (H, C, O)
  • Metals (Ca)
  • Types of bonding
  • H2 O2 molecular covalent
  • C network covalent
  • Ca metallic
  • Examples and models
  • Of properties of elements
  • Of characteristics of bonding

4
Chemicals connected to global warming - 2
  • Compounds
  • Water (H2O), carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4)
  • Molecular covalent
  • All substances that absorb heat energy and effect
    global warming
  • Methane also an energy source
  • Octane (C8H18), glucose (C6H12O6), ethanol
    (C2H6O)
  • Molecular covalent
  • Organic and biochemicals
  • All energy sources
  • Calcium oxide (CaO), calcium carbonate (CaCO3)
  • Ionic
  • depository for CO2
  • Examples and models
  • Of properties of compounds
  • Of different kinds of bonding
  • Of attractions BETWEEN different pieces of
    matter

5
Chemistry Big Ideas - 1
  • Unlike humans, not all matter is created equal.
  • Just like humans, specific matter belongs to
    families and communities and these families and
    communities can overlap.
  • The structure of individual humans determines
    the possible functions of these humans just as
    the structure of specific matter (chemicals)
    determines the possibilities for those chemicals.
  • Individual kinds of matter interact differently
    with other kinds of matter, just like individual
    humans relate differently to other humans
    depending on who they are.

6
Chemistry Big Ideas - 2
  • As with exchanges between humans, exchanges
    between different kinds of matter can be equal or
    unequal
  • As with communities of humans, communities of
    matter shift location and character when
    responding to internal or external forces
  • Small changes or shifts in both human and
    chemical communities can cause major changes in
    how both types of communities behave.
  • Humans and matter seek to maximize both security
    and freedom
  • Humans and matter can exist in non ideal
    conditions that can change to more ideal
    conditions under the right circumstances

7
Tools to understand chemistry
  • Solving puzzles from incomplete information ?
    finding patterns
  • Flow diagrams ? learning a few facts and then
    making decisions to come to correct answers
  • Dynamic reaction figures completing reactions
    and other things by knowing how to match
    complimentary items

8
The Periodic Table a first look
  • One of the great triumphs of the human mind
  • Organization, patterns, predictability
  • Current Problems in how chemistry is taught and
    learned
  • An emphasis on learning facts vs learning big
    ideas
  • No storyline chapter by chapter approach
  • Visual memory overload
  • Learning individual bytes of program instead of
    programs
  • Dwelling too much on the exceptions
  • Not showing students how to use tools effectively

9
One way to start !
10
Another way to start
  • Build on what you already know
  • Take an historical approach
  • When elements were discovered and what that means
    about how accessible and stable they might be
  • Look at how the matter we have on earth actually
    came to be from the big bang

11
The Periodic Table what you already know!
  • Names and symbols of common elements
  • H, N, O, C, Na, Cl
  • Concept of atomic number
  • The upper whole number
  • The number of protons/electrons
  • The number used for bonding
  • Concept of atomic weight
  • The lower number with one or more decimal places
  • The number used in g to mole calculations
  • Development of the table
  • Mendeleev a Russian guy
  • Elements in columns have similarities

12
Facts about the Periodic Table
  • The current form of the Periodic Table of the
    Elements
  • Not Final still being changed by addition of
    elements
  • Recent change in numbering of families (columns)
  • Suggestions still being made on organization!
  • Organization is EXTREMELY important
  • Terminology
  • Columns (vertical) Groups (families)
  • Some groups have names (later) others are
    referred to by number only
  • Rows (horizontal) Periods
  • Main part vs the detached parts
  • All our work will be in the main part
  • Metals and nonmetals - detail

13
Elements known to ancients (B.C.)
  • Eleven elements
  • Early discovery Easy to find or extract
  • Found in elemental form
  • Gold, silver
  • Must be chemically stable as elements
  • Carbon (diamonds and coal), sulfur (brimstone)
  • Produced by biological or geological processes
  • Easily extractable from common ores
  • Metallurgy was an early human activity swords
  • Iron, copper, lead, tin, antimony, mercury,
    bismuth
  • S and C are only light elements
  • Ag, Au, Hg, Pb, Sn, Sb, Bi are all heavy

14
(No Transcript)
15
Further Discovery of the Elements
  • Age of Alchemy (to 1750)
  • 6 elements
  • Isolated in search for philosophers stone to
    turn base metals into gold
  • Phosphorous, cobalt, nickel, zinc, arsenic,
    platinum
  • Only one light element improved ability to
    extract metals (nonmetals) from ores
  • Between 1766 and 1800 14 elements
  • Between 1801 and 1830 21 more elements

16
Sir Humphrey Davy (17781829) two years, 6
elements
  • 1807 sodium and potassium
  • Isolated by electrolysis of hydroxides of sodium
    (caustic soda) and potassium (caustic potash)
    NaOH, KOH
  • 1808 magnesium, calcium, barium
  • Magnesium from magnesia (MgO) by electrolysis
  • Calcium from lime (CaO) by electrolysis
  • Barium from baryta (BaO) by electrolysis
  • 1808 boron
  • From reaction of boric acid (H3BO3) with
    potassium (K)
  • Found in nature in chemicals with H and O
    present!!!

17
  • First memorization task
  • Get elements name/symbol by going online
  • Find out interesting stuff about Periodic Table
    and elements
  • Webelements website http//www.webelements.com/

18
Our Hot and Glorious Past -the Origins of Matter
and Energy
  • The Big Bang the facts
  • Creation of protons and electrons
  • 10n ? 11p 0-1e
  • Creation of H and He
  • Production of lots and lots of energy
  • Mass difference energy
  • E mc2

19
The Big Bang the picture
Red neutrons blue protons (electrons not
shown) A right before big bang B 10
minutes C 20 minutes D 30 minutes
20
Thinking synthetically
  • Synthesis making things from other things
  • Steps in thinking synthetically
  • What pieces do we have to start with?
  • What are the rules for combining these pieces?
  • Can these pieces be brought close enough to each
    together to make something new, and if they can
    how is this be done?
  • Can these pieces interact to make new things?
  • Are the new pieces stable and will they even stay
    together?

21
Some Big Bang Synthesis
  • 2 11p 2 10n ? 42He
  • 2 11H 2 10n ? 42He (same as above)
  • 1 1H 2 10n ? 31H
  • 1 1H 10n ? ?
  • 2 11H 10n ? ?
  • Isotopes
  • Nuclei with same of p but different of n
  • Stable most common
  • 1 1H 42He
  • Stable less common
  • 2 1H 32He
  • Unstable (radioactive)
  • 31H
  • Half life (variable length)

22
After the Big Bang
  • Compression of H (and He) by gravity
  • Ignition of nuclear fire
  • Birth of first generation star
  • Production of He from H
  • 4 11H ? 42He !!!
  • Charge balance energy balance
  • 4 11H ? 42He other particles antiparticles
    heat
    light
  • Mass difference again

23
Adulthood of First Generation Star
  • Stellar histories
  • Different first generation stars have different
    fates
  • Stars with mass greater than 8 times of our sun
    have unique life
  • Continued compression and temperature increase
  • Production of higher elements (fusion reactions)
  • 42He 42He ?
  • 84Be other particles heat light
  • 42He 84Be ?
  • 126C other particles heat light
  • 42He 126C ?
  • 168O other particles heat light
  • Mass difference
  • Produce energy therefore increase temperature
    increase pressure

24
Death of a first generation star
  • At about 10 trillion degrees Fe fusion with He
    can occur
  • 42He 5626Fe ?
  • 6028Ni other particles
  • Ni product weighs more than He and Fe!
  • 42He 5626Fe energy ?
  • 6028Ni other particles
  • Star cools at center!
  • Supernova occurs
  • Very compressed and close nuclei
  • Lots of collisions
  • Formations of all kinds of other nuclei including
    all nuclei heavier than Ni
  • Formations of all kinds of isotopes stable AND
    unstable

25
Home Sweet Home Whats on Earth
  • Gravity is always there!
  • Particles created in supernova cool down
  • Particles brought together
  • 99 of particles are still H and He nuclei and
    electrons in the vicinity
  • Other forces
  • Strong nuclear force only at very high T and
    pressure
  • Weak nuclear force radioactive decay
  • Unstable nucleus ? other nucleus energetic
    radiation
  • Other nucleus may also be unstable!
  • Energetic radiation heats up surroundings
  • Long lived radioactive nuclei will continue to
    produce energy for billions of years!
  • Chemical forces finally!!
  • Attractions of negative and positive regions of
    atoms and collections of atoms for each other
  • Formation of chemical species

26
Step 1 in the formation chemical species
27
Step 2 in the formation chemical species
Figure 2 Cooling matter after supernova Circles
with charges represent various nuclei blue dots
represent electrons that have been collected by
nuclei red dots represent electrons still in
plasma  
28
Step 3 in the formation chemical species
Figure 3 Formation of chemical species on
cooling of matter Circles with charges represent
various nuclei nuclei in contact with each other
surrounded by electrons are chemical species
some nuclei have collected electrons but have not
interacted with other nuclei there are still
free electrons  
29
Step 4 in the formation chemical species
  Figure 4 Rearrangement of chemical species
upon further collisions and cooling Circles with
charges represent various nuclei nuclei in
contact with each other surrounded by electrons
are chemical species some nuclei have collected
electrons but have still not interacted with
other nuclei
30
After formation of first chemical species
  • Chemical species collide with each other
  • Chemical attractions take hold
  • Melting caused by radioactive decay changes
    chemical species
  • New chemical species combinations form
  • welding compacts matter
  • Gravity always pulling together matter
  • Of any and all sizes!
  • Dust becomes pebbles become rocks become boulders
    etc etc.

31
Summary of Protoplanet Formation
32
Stratification
  • Melting caused by gravitational compression,
    radioactive decay and meteor bombardment
  • Denser chemical species and atomic elements
    sink to center
  • Temperature hot enough and pressure high enough
    to have liquid (and compressed solid) metal
    elements
  • Lighter chemical species float to top
  • Process occurs over millions of years
  • Matter can investigate possible arrangements
  • Most stable chemical species form
  • High reactivity of oxygen important in mantle and
    crust
  • Important in retaining lighter elements

33
Abundance of elements from universe to
humans (out of every 100,000 atoms)
34
Primitive earth in oxidizing environment
  • Elemental oxygen highly reactive
  • Combines with most other elements (later)
  • Formation of oxides
  • Most stable compounds formed
  • Energy big one
  • Most oxidized form of each element obtained
  • To get most oxidized iron took 1 billion years!!!

35
Primitive earth after oxidation
  • All oxygen bound up in compounds
  • To get to reduced compounds requires energy
  • Continued energy input from sun
  • Reduced compounds can continue to be produced
  • Reduced compounds can accumulate if oxygen not
    present in reactive form

36
Magic happens
  • In warm water substantially below the surface
  • Protected from radiation
  • Protected from oxidation
  • Primitive organic chemicals form in reducing
    environment
  • Polymers complex organic substances form small
    organic substances
  • Self-replicating chemical systems form
  • Self-replicating systems become enclosed in
    protected environments
  • Self-replicating cells form
  • Self-replicating cells incorporate primitive
    chlorophyll and capture solar energy
  • Chlorophyll is very simple substance

37
Magic continues
  • Primitive photosynthetic cells produce molecular
    oxygen as waste product
  • Molecular oxygen accumulates in atmosphere
  • Significant ozone forms in upper atmosphere
  • Protective layer against harmful radiation
  • Primitive organisms can move closer to the
    surface
  • Capture more energy
  • More accessible to substances entering water
  • Evolution accelerates
  • Second form of life that utilize molecular oxygen
    as energy source develops
  • Remember that reaction with oxygen produces
    energy and can therefore run machines
    (including living ones)
  • Some life forms leave water to live on land (and
    in the air)
  • Take a biology course for the details from here!
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