Novel derives from frame tales like Chaucers Canterbury Tales or Boccaccios Decameron.
It also derives from Aesops Fables stories from Old Testament. (Waterhouse)
3 Ancestry (cont.)
The Medieval Romances of Chretien de Troyes and Malorys Le Morte dArthur
are a precedent.
4 Epistolary Novels
In England some of the earliest popular novels were epistolary published as letters between characters
Richardsons Pamela or Virtue Rewarded 1740) and Clarissa are examples.
5 Picaresque Novels
Novels centered around wanderings or journeys of the central character-called picaresque after Picaro in Don Quixote by Cervantes.
6 Picaresque Novels (cont.)
Henry Fielding adopted this type in Joseph Andrews and Tom Jones.
Also Tobias Smollett Humphrey Clinker
7 The Psychological NovelLaurence Sterne
Interest in association of ideas-John Locke and others
Tradition of the Learned Wit
Tristram Shandy by Lawrence Sterne published in 9 vols starting 1759.
8 Tristram Shandy- a forerunner of the stream of consciousness novel
Freedom of form and willingness to experiment with digressions and other techniques---linked to novels of Virginia Woolf James Joyce (Wiliam Faulkner)
9 The Coming of Age novel or Bildungsroman
On the continent Goethes The Apprenticeship of Wilhelm Meister models this form
A young person grows to learn from lifes adventures hardships
10 In England
The type becomes popularTom Jones the foundling who grows and learns his true identity
Dickens David Copperfield also Great Expectations
11 More recently
Joyces Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man a young man growing up in Catholic Ireland
Evelyn Waughs Brideshead Revisited-a young man learns from his relations with the aristocracy
12 The Gothic Novel
First becomes widely popular with Mathew Lewis The Monk 1795.
Complete with corrupt priests murders ghosts it took Europe by a storm.
13 Other early Gothic novels
Anne Radcliffes The Mysteries of Udolpho 1795
Horace Walpoles The Castle of Otranto 1765
Jane Austens Northanger Abbey 1818 (satirical)
14 Gothic novels
Contain medieval or exotic settings elements of supernatural
Mary Shelleys Frankenstein 1818 and William Beckfords Vathek (the life of Caliph Vathek) 1764 were popular
15 The Novel of Manners
Setting and characters limited to a particular social group and their customs/mores
Focus is on relationships especially marriage and social status.
Eg. Austen Wharton
16 The Lyrical/Regional Novel
Less a tradition than a style these novels rely heavily on description of setting
Thomas Hardys Wessex novels exemplify this trend. The Return of the Native Far from the Madding Crowd The Mayor of Casterbridge
17 Later Practitioners in the Lyrical Novel
D. H. Lawrence midland novels The Rainbow Sons and Lovers Women in Love
Joseph Conrad Heart of Darkness Lord Jim
18 The Victorian Novel
The novel is the genre best adapted to the Victorian sensibility
Concerned with issues and problems of contemporary society
They create a richly detailed realistic sense of 19th century life.
19 Victorian novel
Novels of this period are known for their length
Many were published serially
Authors often responded to reader input on earlier episodes
20 Charles Dickens
Master of serial publication
The leading novelist from 1837 until death in 1870.
Gives a realistic humorous portrayal of all walks of London life
Social and political concerns
21 Others points of view
William Makepeace Thackeray (1811-63)and Anthony Trollope (1815-82) thought Dickens too theatrical
They wanted more emphasis on characters inner lives
More restrained and traditional emphasize more precise shades of Victorian manners behavior
22 George Eliot 1819-80
(Mary Ann Evans) greatest novelist of inner moral life
Political and social worlds of her novels are as vast as Dickens
Primary concern is with the free will and moral intelligence of her characters
Silas Marner Middlemarch
23 Thomas Hardy 1840-1928
Also focused on the inner life of his characters
Emphasize question of free will and self-determination
Ones fate is shaped by forces outside of control passions coincidence historical forces
24 Thomas Hardy
Born in Dorset east of Dorchester in 1840.
Trained as an architect
Death of his first wife influenced his later Poems 1912-13
Novels set in partly imaginary region of Wessex.
Portray English countryside prior to railways factories
His characters struggle against forces of nature and human nature
25 Hardy (cont.) The novels
Far From the Madding Crowd 1874
Return of the Native 1878
The Mayor of Casterbridge 1886
Tess of the DUrbervilles 1891
Jude the Obscure 1895. Jude was criticized for its sexuality and affront to the institution of marriage. Hardy turned to poetry following.
26 Thomas Hardys Wessex
27 Hardy (conclusion)
Hardy had become a celebrity among British novelists by 1900s
Identified with the school of naturalism
His religious beliefs unclear determinism along with acceptance of supernatural (spiritism)
Novels were increasingly fatalistic
Hardy married a 2nd time in 1905
28 Hardy (conclusion)
Died in 1928 of pleurisy
His ashes are in Poets Corner in Westminster Abbey
His heart is buried in Stinsford next to 1st wife Emma.
29 Hardys study at Max Gate 30 Joseph Conrad
Born Teodor Jozef Konrad Korzeniowski 1857-1924 in Ukraine to Polish patriots landowners
Worked as gunrunner on French vessels later British
31 Conrad (cont.)
Became British subject and published fictional works
His Romanticism imbued with irony
Heart of Darkness reflects his own sea-going history
Describes and encounter with Evil
Story within a frame narrative (retired sea captain Marlowes yarn)
Symbolic overtones as a journey of self-discovery or a Night Journey
Originally published in 3 parts in Blackwoods Magazine 1899
Web Images David Copperfield Wilhelm Meister FrankensteinUlyssesHeart of Darkness
Joseph Conrad Wikipedia
Amazon.com images of The Castle of Otranto Vathek
The Castle of Otranto Wikipedia.
Thomas Hardy Wikipedia
Thomas Hardy Country A Photographic Tour http//members.aol.com.hardy.1001.
The Thomas Hardy Association www.yale.edu.hardysoc
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