Development of a positive attitude toward something as a function of increased familiarity with it.
basing our beliefs on what we are told
Children (generally) listen to their parents
Students accept information from textbooks
Patients listen to doctors advise
7 Use of Reason Logic
Example Deductive Reasoning
Primates are capable of using language
Bozo the chimp is a primate
Bozo the chimp can use language
Psychologists love statistics!
Dr. Z is a psychologist
Therefore Dr. Z loves statistics!
a priori method
Process of learning via direct observation or experience
Example Weather in Maine is cold!
9 Belief in God
Many people have a strong belief in God and believe that God has a personal influence in their life. Consider the different ways of knowing that we just discussed. Explain how each source may or may not contribute to a persons belief in God.
10 Scientific Thinking is
a set of procedures to provide a convincing argument
is _____________- free from human bias or preconception is verifiable by more than one observer
is ___________- show me the data!
asks empirical questions that can be answered through systematic observations experiences
has 2 main assumptions
events have causes
causes can be discovered via scientific methods
11 Psychology is a Science because
Follows the 4 basic Canons of Science
_________ events have causes - actions events follow certain rules are therefore predictable
_________ The method of making observations. (Making observations is the best method.)
_________ If we have two competing theories we should choose the simpler or more frugal of the two.
__________ Validation Falsification Qualification
12 The Scientific Method
Scientific method refers to
The scientific method refers to ways in which scientists ask questions and the logic and methods they use to gain answers.
13 The Scientific Method (continued)
Two important aspects of the scientific method are
the reliance on an _________ and
the __________scientists adopt toward explanations of behavior and mental processes.
14 The Scientific Method (continued)
An empirical approach to gaining knowledge emphasizes
observation of behaviors that can be observed directly
experimentation in which scientists employ _____________ in the situation to be observed.
15 Components of the Scientific Method
The scientific method rocks!!! ROCQS
R - __________
O - __________
C - __________
Q - ___________
S - ____________
16 Components of the Scientific Method
___________ study is repeated
___________ free from bias verified by more than one observer (so we have to define terms and procedures carefully so others can replicate)
17 Components of the Scientific Method
By manipulation of things of interest
Example amount of drugs or training
By elimination of unwanted factors
Example random assignment
18 Components of the Scientific Method
____________ must define concepts in terms of numbers (72 inches). Research is data-drivenfor examplein examining the claim excessive TV reduces creativity one might ask how is creativity measured how large is the data set
__________ conclusions drawn from data are tentative (subject to revision). So we must share data publish rebuttals and be open to change!
19 Psychological Science in Context
The scope of scientific psychology has increased dramatically in 100 years.
The ________________ and the____________________ promote the science of psychology.
At the turn of the 20th century early psychologists adopted the __________as the best means for developing the science of psychology.
The __________ has been a key factor in the shift from behaviorism to cognitive psychology as the dominant theoretical perspective in psychology.
20 Social and Cultural Context
Scientists questions resources and acceptance are influenced by the current ________ the social and cultural spirit of the times.
Because scientists conduct psychological research in a social and cultural context they are susceptible to the potential bias of___________.
21 Social and Cultural Context (continued)
A ____ in which we try to understand the behavior of individuals in a different culture through the framework or views of our own culture.
Be aware of cultural influences.
The way we __________and others is heavily influenced by the culture in which we live.
Our understanding of psychology is based on research done primarily within the______________.
22 Social and Cultural Context (continued)
An ethnocentric bias can influence the research areas questions we choose.
Do we focus on deficits in aging people (e.g. declining memory) rather than strengths (e.g. wisdom)
Do we examine questions of aggression and race rather than nurturance and race
When developing a research question be sure to consider whether you are being ethnocentric.
Consider developing a research question that goes against the cultural norm.
23 Social and Cultural Context (continued)
An ethnocentric bias also influences how we ___________.
Consider for example how we stereotype people based on their dress or hairstyle (e.g. Goths Hip-Hop).
Has your behavior ever been interpreted in terms of an ethnocentric bias
24 Psychological Science in Context
Scientists maintain the highest standards for_________________.
Scientists do not fabricate data plagiarize or selectively report research findings.
Psychologists consult the ethical principles of the_______________________.
The code of ethics helps researchers to evaluate dilemmas such as the risks and benefits associated with deception and the use of animals in research.
25 Thinking Like a Researcher
To think like a researcher is to be _________regarding claims about the causes of behavior and mental processes
even claims made on the basic of published scientific findings.
The strongest evidence for a claim about behavior comes from __________across many studies
although scientists recognize that claims are always probabilistic.
26 Thinking Like a Researcher
Scientists are similar to detectives and others in the legal system.
In the legal system a small amount of evidence leads to ________ but a large amount of evidence is needed to ________ someone of a crime.
27 Thinking Like a Researcher
Similar to legal evidence scientific evidence varies according to the_________________.
_________ of behavior
__________ about behavior
Evidence for the ______ of a behavior
_________ (repetitions) of findings for the cause of behavior
The stronger the evidence the more confident we can be about the claim about behavior.
28 Evidence and Decision Making 29 Guidelines for Evaluating Reports of Psychological Research
Dont confuse pseudoscience or nonscience with science.
Be aware that scientists may disagree.
Keep in mind that research is generally about averages.
Whenever possible go to the original source.
30 Science Vs. Pseudoscience
false science literally
claims presented so that they appear scientific even though they lack the supporting evidence and plausibility (Sherman 1997 p. 33)
appears to use scientific methods and tries to give a science-y impression
31 Characteristics of Pseudoscience
associates itself with true science
relies on and accepts ___________________
sidesteps disproof (any possible outcome is explained away)
a theory is not a good theory if it can explain everything b/c it cannot make specific predictions
dangerously reduces complexity to simplicity
32 Applying Characteristics of Pseudoscience for Graphology
associates itself with __________
Forensic experts analyze handwriting
relies on __________________
Famous persons well-known traits can be predicted from their handwriting
If an extrovert doesnt cross a t like an extrovert should a graphologist may use the letter size to offset this inconsistency
How can a complicated phenomenon as personality be adequately understood from handwriting
33 Other Examples 34 Psychology Questions
We dont always know how people will behave or what they think even if we have an _____ about it. So we need to do research.
For example answer True or False to these questions
35 Psychology Questions (continued)
Mothers talk to their younger children differently than they talk to their older children. True or false
__________ Haden (1998) found that mothers use the same conversation styles (elaborative or repetitive) with their different-age children.
Haden C. A. (1998). Reminiscing with different children Relating maternal stylistic consistency and sibling similarity in talk about the past. Developmental Psychology 34 99-114.
36 Psychology Questions (continued)
Few students will confess to ruining a computer program if they didnt do it. True or false
________ Kassin and Kiechel (1996) found that 69 of students in their study falsely confessed to ruining a computer program and signed a written confession.
Kassin S. A. Kiechel K. L. (1996). The social psychology of false confessions Compliance internalization and confabulation. Psychological Science 7 125-128.
37 Psychology Questions (continued)
Most individuals will notice if a person they are talking to is replaced by another person. True or false
_______ Simons and Levin (1998) found that only 47 of participants in one study and 33 of participants in a second study noticed that the person changed to a different person mid-way through their conversation.
Simons D. J. Levin D. T. (1998). Failure to detect changes to people during a real-world interaction. Psychonomic Bulletin and Review 5 644-649.
38 Non-scientific vs. Scientific Approaches 39 General Approach
judgments and decisions are based on what feels right.
judgments and decisions are based on direct observation and experimentation.
personal biases and other factors influence observation.
control is the essential ingredient of science.
Scientists gain the greatest control when they conduct an experiment.
41 Observation (continued)
________ Scientists investigate the effect of various factors one at a time in an experiment.
An experiment has at least one independent variable and at least one dependent variable.
__________(IV) A factor that researchers control or manipulate in order to determine the effect on behavior.
___________(DV) The measure of behavior that is used to assess the effect of the independent variable.
Personal impressions are reported.
observations and inferences are separate.
interobserver agreement is important.
We arent clear in the meaning of the words we use.
For example what do we mean by intelligence
Define specifically what we mean by our concepts
A construct is a concept or idea used in psychological theories.
An ______________is the specific procedure used to produce and measure a construct.
45 Constructs (continued)
_________of operational definitions
Allow scientists to define specifically what they mean by their construct
Allow clear communication among scientists.
A potentially limitless number of operational definitions exists for any particular construct.
Some operational definitions may be meaningless.
46 Constructs (continued)
Match each construct with an operational definition
Construct Operational Definition
A. score on the Minnesota Multiphasic
Aggression Personality Inventory
Depression B. score on the final exam of this course
Intelligence C. number of times person hits another person
Memory D. number of depression symptoms from the
Knowledge of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual
research methods E. score on the Wechsler Adult Intelligence
Personality Scale (WAIS)
F. score on the Digit-Span Test of memory
for example clocks gas gauges measuring cup
________ difference between what an instrument says and what is actually true
________ measures have different levels of precision.
measures of our concepts that are inaccurate or inconsistent.
valid measures get at the truth
reliable measures are consistent.
49 Measurements (continued)
_______ measurement involves dimensions that have agreed-upon standards and instruments.
Examples length weight time
_________ measurement is used to measure constructs for which there is no agreed upon standard or instrument.
Are there agreed upon standards for what is considered beauty intelligence or aggression
Psychologists develop measures to assess these and other psychological constructs.
50 Measurements (continued)
Measures must be valid and reliable.
________refers to truthfulness a valid measure is one that measures what it claims to measure.
Example Do exams in your courses test the material covered in course lectures and texts
________ refers to the consistency of a measure.
For example a measure is considered reliable when different observers consistently agree about an observation.
A measure may be reliable but not valid!!
For example a scale that consistently underreports someones weight is reliable but not valid.
concepts not defined clearly
appeals to ideas outside realm of science.
concepts are clearly defined and can be measured.
A tentative explanation of something
Answers the questions How Why
At one level simply suggests how things might be related
Example associate non-attractive and mean personality and attractive and nice personality
At higher level it might suggest how something causes something else
Example drivers ed classes decrease rate of accidents by young drivers
53 Hypotheses (continued)
Hypotheses are not testable if they have any of these three characteristics
1. Constructs are not adequately defined.
Example People become aggressive following exposure to media violence because the violence is disturbing.
2. The hypothesis is circular the event itself is used as an explanation of the event.
Example People become aggressive following exposure to media violence because they become verbally or physically abusive.
3. The hypothesis appeals to ideas or forces that are not recognized by science.
Example People become aggressive following exposure to media violence because they are overcome by the Devil.
accept claims with insufficient evidence ignore contradictory evidence
behavior and mental processes are complex
human mistakes are made (even in science).
55 Goals of Psychological Research
________ behavior - identifying regularly occurring sequences of events
Example Psychologists describe symptoms of depression. One operational definition of depression comes from the list of symptoms in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual.
________ behavior - behavior follows laws if regular and predictable relationships exist between variable
stronger relationships allow predictions to be made with some degree of confidence
Example As level of depression increases individuals exhibit more helplessness (failure to initiate activities and pessimism regarding the future).
________ behavior - knowing what caused it to happen
_______ behavior - applying principles of behavior learned through research
56 Basic Assumptions
__________the things we see hear feel and taste are real and have substance
________- there is a rational basis for the events that occur in nature and these can be understood through logical thinking
57 Basic Assumptions cont
_________- events in nature follow the same laws and occur the same way at all times and places
_________- it is possible to discover the uniformities that exist in nature
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