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End of the Korean War and Cuba


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Title: End of the Korean War and Cuba

End of the Korean War and Cuba
  • Lesson 21

Approaching the Yalu
  • MacArthur continued to push north, ignoring
    threats of Chinese intervention
  • On October 25, the Chinese army attacked after
    having infiltrated into North Korea
  • After suffering setbacks, the U.N. forces
    stabilized their lines by November 5
  • Chinese withdrew northward
  • MacArthur launched a great offensive toward the
    end of November, which he optimistically hoped
    would end the war in Korea

  • MacArthurs all-out offensive to the Yalu had
    barely begun when the Chinese attacked en masse
    on the night of November 25.
  • Roughly 180,000 Chinese troops shattered the
    right flank of Walkers Eighth Army in the west,
    while 120,000 others threatened to destroy the X
    Corps near the Chosin Reservoir.
  • On November 28, MacArthur informed the Joint
    Chiefs, We face an entirely new war.
  • U.N. retreat ended about 70 miles below Seoul.

  • Beginning January 15, Ridgway led the U.N. in a
    slow advance northward.
  • U.N. re-recaptured Seoul (the fourth and final
    time it changed hands) on March 15, and had
    patrols crossing the 38th parallel on March 31.
  • In the meantime, MacArthur had been steadily
    pushing Washington to remove the restrictions on
    his forces.
  • Truman declined for fear of widening the war and
    fired MacArthur for insubordination on April 11.

MacArthurs Relief
  • MacArthur repeatedly made public statements that
    were contrary to official US policy
  • In August, he sent a speech to be read to the VFW
    proposing Formosas utility as a base of
  • He suggested that Truman Administration policies
    were responsible for the retreat of the Eighth

MacArthur and Truman met at Wake Island, Oct 14,
MacArthurs Relief
  • On Dec 6, 1950, Truman published an executive
    order aimed at MacArthur requiring all
    government officials to clear their public
    statements on foreign and military policy with
    the Administration
  • Truman planned to use recent military successes
    to invite the Communists to negotiate
  • MacArthur broadcast an ultimatum to the enemy
    which undermines Trumans authority
  • Sent a letter to Congressman Joseph Martin
    further criticizing the Administration

MacArthurs Relief
  • I deeply regret that it becomes my duty as
    President and Commander in Chief of the United
    States Military Forces to replace you as Supreme
    Commander, Allied Powers Commander in Chief,
    United Nations Command Commander in Chief, Far
    East and Commanding General United States Army,
    Far East. You will turn over your commands,
    effective at once, to Lieutenant General Matthew
    B. Ridgway.

But once war is forced upon us, there is no
other alternative than to apply every available
means to bring it to a swift end. Wars very
object is victory, not prolonged indecision. In
war there is no substitute for victory.
MacArthurs Farewell Address Apr 19, 1951
Civilian Control of the Military
  • President serves as Commander in Chief and Chief
  • Ensures civilian control over military policy
  • Appointment of officers
  • Appointment of Secretary of Defense
  • Congress provides for the common defense
  • Declares war
  • Raises and supports armies
  • Provides and maintains a Navy
  • Controls budget
  • Make rules for the government and regulation of
    the land and naval forces

Negotiation and Stalemate
  • On June 29,1951, Ridgway broadcast a message to
    his Communist counterpart announcing his
    willingness to negotiate
  • Eighth Army transitioned to an active defense
  • Unsuccessful attempts to break Communist supply
    line with air and artillery

Matthew Ridgway
Operation Ratkiller
  • The slowing down of maneuver allowed the UN to
    turn its attention to counterguerrilla
  • Behind the lines in South Korea there were over
    8,000 guerrillas and bandits, 5,400 of whom were
    reported armed.
  • Concentrated mainly in the mountains of the
    rugged Chiri-san area of southwestern Korea
  • Although they were chiefly of nuisance value,
    there was always the chance that in the event of
    a major offensive, they could pose a real and
    dangerous threat to supply and communication
    lines and to rear areas.

Operation Ratkiller
  • During November 1951 there was an upsurge in
    raiding operations as the guerrillas launched
    well-coordinated attacks upon rail lines and
  • In mid-November Lieutenant General James Van
    Fleet ordered the ROK Army to set up a task force
    composed of the ROK Capital and ROK 8th
    Divisions, both minus their artillery units.
  • Van Fleet wanted the group organized and ready to
    stamp out guerrilla activity by the first of

Operation Ratkiller
  • Since the Chiri-san held the core of guerrilla
    resistance, Van Fleet directed that the first
    phase of the task force operations cover this
    mountainous stretch some twenty miles northwest
    of Chinju.
  • On December 1, the ROK Government declared
    martial law in southwestern Korea.
  • Restricted the movement of civilians, established
    a curfew, and severed telephone connections
    between villages.
  • On the following day Task Force Paik initiated
    its antiguerrilla campaign, Operation Ratkiller

Operation Ratkiller Phase One
  • Encirclement
  • Moving in from a 163-mile perimeter, Task Force
    Paik closed on the Chiri-san.
  • The ROK 8th Division pushed southward toward the
    crest of the mountains and the Capital Division
    edged northward to meet it.
  • Blocking forces, composed of National Police,
    youth regiments, and security forces located in
    the area, were stationed at strategic positions
    to cut off escape routes.

Operation Ratkiller Phase One
  • As the net was drawn tighter, groups of from ten
    to five hundred guerrillas were flushed, but only
    light opposition developed.
  • After twelve days, Task Force Paik ended the
    first phase on December 14 with a total of 1,612
    reported killed and 1,842 prisoners.

Operation Ratkiller Phase Two
  • The hunt shifted north to Cholla Pukto Province
    for Phase II with the mountains around Chonju the
    chief objectives.
  • From December 19 to January 4 the ROK 8th and
    Capital Divisions ranged the hills and sought to
    trap the guerrillas and bandits hiding in the
    rough terrain.
  • By the end of December it was estimated that over
    4,000 men had been killed and another 4,000 had
    been captured.

Operation Ratkiller Phase Three
  • When Phase III opened on January 6, the task
    force returned to the Chiri-san to catch the
    guerrillas who had filtered back into the area
    after Phase I.
  • On January 19, the Capital Division carried out
    the most significant action of the campaign.
  • While the ROK 26th Regiment took up blocking
    positions north of the mountains, the ROK 1st and
    Cavalry Regiments attacked from the south, in two
    consecutive rings.
  • Although one small group broke through the inner
    ring, it was caught by the outer circle of

Operation Ratkiller Results
  • What was believed to be the core of the
    resistance forces in South Korea perished or was
    taken prisoner during this drive.
  • When Phase III ended at the close of January,
    over 19,000 guerrillas and bandits had been
    killed or captured in the Ratkiller operation.
  • The last phase became a mopping-up effort against
    light and scattered resistance.
  • Ratkiller officially terminated on March 15, when
    the local authorities took over the task.

EncirclementFM 90-8, Counterguerrilla Operations
  • Encirclement offers the best chance to fix
    guerrilla forces in position and achieve decisive
  • The battalion and larger units will usually plan
    and conduct encirclements.
  • The company and smaller units normally do not
    have the manpower and command and control
    capability to execute encirclements except as
    part of a larger force.
  • Encirclements require accurate intelligence on
    the location of guerrilla elements.

Encirclement Initial occupation
  • Planning, preparation, and execution are aimed at
    encircling the guerrilla force rapidly.
  • Maximum security and surprise can be gained by
    occupying the initial encirclement positions
    during darkness.
  • In large operations, air assault and airborne
    troops add speed and surprise to the operation.
  • Positions are occupied simultaneously in order to
    block escape. If simultaneous occupation is not
    possible, probable escape routes are covered
  • Initial occupation is the most critical period of
    the operation. When the guerrillas become aware
    that they are being encircled, they will probably
    probe for gaps or attack weak points and attempt
    to break out.

Encirclement Contraction
  • Following completion of the encirclement, the
    circle is contracted to capture or destroy the
    guerrilla force. As the circle is contracted,
    units may be removed from the line and added to
    the reserve.
  • Against small guerrilla forces, the encircled
    area may be cleared by contraction and a final
  • Against larger guerrilla forces, however, at some
    point, some action other than contraction will be

Wedge Technique
  • One technique consists of driving a wedge through
    the guerrilla force to divide it and then
    destroying the guerrillas in each subarea.

Hammer and Anvil Technique
  • Another technique, employed after some degree of
    contraction, is to employ a blocking force on one
    or more sides of the perimeter while the
    remainder of the encircling force drives the
    guerrillas against the blocking force.
  • Either element may accomplish the actual
  • This technique is effective when the blocking
    force can be located on, or immediately in the
    rear of, a natural terrain obstacle.

Negotiation and Stalemate
  • In spite of the slowdown in major maneuver, both
    sides expend enormous amounts of effort to
    solidify their lines
  • Costly seesaw battles like Bloody Ridge,
    Heartbreak Ridge, and Old Baldy
  • Negotiations characterized by intransigence
  • POWs a major obstacle
  • Armistice not signed till July 27, 1953

Heartbreak Ridge with Bloody Ridge in background
Korean War and the Cold War
  • Truman put limitations on MacArthur because he
    had concluded that Korea was not worth risking a
    third world war
  • Korea was part of the US policy of containment,
    but stopped short of initiating the policy of
    roll back
  • Contributed to the formation of the Southeast
    Asia Treaty Organization (SEATO) by Australia,
    France, Great Britain, New Zealand, Pakistan, the
    Philippines, Thailand, and the US in 1954

Secretary of State John Foster Dulles advocated a
policy of rolling back Soviet gains and
unleashing Chiang Kai-shek
Korea Today
  • The war ended with an armistice, not a peace
  • The Demilitarized Zone (DMZ) encompasses 2
    kilometers on either side of the 151 mile long
    Military Demarcation Line (MDL)
  • North Korea remains communist and a nuclear threat

Panmunjeom is the official diplomatic
headquarters at the DMZ. North Korean guards, in
brown, face their South Korean counterparts, in
Fidel Castro
  • In the early 1950s Cuba was controlled by a
    moderate right-wing military regime that was
    friendly to the US government and businesses
  • The US supported Fulgencio Batista as an
    anti-communist and a proponent of the US in
    domestic and international policies
  • However, in 1959 Fidel Castro was able to
    mobilize the disaffected rural peasants and
    topple Batistas regime

A Cuban crowd listens to Castro after his takeover
Fidel Castro
  • Castro assumed dictatorial powers and announced
    his goal was to create a society based on Marxist
  • He nationalized large-scale landholdings, sought
    economic aid from the Soviet Union, and tried to
    export revolution throughout Latin America
    through peasant and urban guerrilla warfare

Che Guevara directed many of Castros Latin
American operations until he was killed in
Bolivia in 1967
Bay of Pigs
  • The US could not accept the presence of a
    revolutionary Marxist government so close to its
    borders and President Eisenhower authorized
    planning for a force of anti-Castro Cubans to
    invade Cuba and overthrow Castro
  • When Kennedy became president he authorized the
    invasion but stipulated that the US not be
    involved in the landing itself

Bay of Pigs
  • The invasion took place at the Bay of Pigs in
    April 1961 and proved to be a disaster
  • Instead of rallying to the invaders, the local
    population supported the Castro government
  • The failure embarrassed the US and weakened
    President Kennedy in the eyes of the Soviet Union
  • However, it strengthened Kennedys personal
    resolve to act more vigorously in any future

Castro helping to repel the invasion
Cuban Missile Crisis
  • Castro feared the US would try again to overthrow
    him and he called for additional support from the
    Soviet Union
  • Soviet Premier Nikita Khrushchev responded by
    sending medium-range bombers and missiles to Cuba
    to help defend Castro and threaten the US
  • In Oct 1962, US spy planes discovered missile
    sites under construction in Cuba

Map used to brief the range of missiles and
bombers being deployed to Cuba.
Kennedys Response
  • Kennedy responded decisively, demanding that the
    Soviets remove the missiles and bombers or face
    their destruction by air strikes or invasion
  • He also imposed a naval quarantine of Cuba

The US destroyer Joseph P. Kennedy stops, boards,
and inspects a dry-cargo ship of Lebanese
registry under Soviet charter to Cuba on Oct 26,
(No Transcript)
US Victory
  • On Oct 28, Khrushchev agreed to remove the
  • Eyeball to eyeball, they blinked first.
  • Dean Rusk, US Secretary of State
  • The Cuban Missile Crisis had shown the dangers of
    nuclear apocalypse in the bipolar world
  • It was a major Cold War victory for the US and a
    major loss of face for the Soviet Union and

1962 British cartoon showing Kennedy and
Khrushchev arm wrestling on top of nuclear weapons
Cold War Society
  • Vietnam
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