A cooking method in which heat is transferred or conducted to the food in one of the following ways
By radiant heat - rays that come from a flowing or red hot heat source such as coals flames or hot element
By metal that conducts heat from a burner to the food
By oil that is heated
3 Changes that occur to food
Color - due to heat causing the surface of food to dry out
Dry heat methods produce a golden or deep brown color on the outside
Flavor on outside is more intense as food browns
Food that contains sugar starts to turn brown or caramelize when heated
Protein rich foods (meats) turn brown as they cook
Known as Maillard reaction
Texture - outer layer of food stiffens as cooks
Crispy skin on chicken crunchy breading on fried foods
Eggs meats fish poultry become firm
Some foods soften - onions
6 Flavor How to maintain moisture
Coat with flour
Marinate Soak in oil flavorful liquids aromatics before cooking
7 Nutritional value
The longer food cooks the more nutritive value it loses.
Food cooked very quickly will lose relatively few vitamins and minerals.
Cooking can also add unwanted nutritional value.
Fried foods add fat to foods.
8 8 basic dry heat methods
Grilling and broiling
Roasting and baking
Sauteing and stir frying
Pan frying and deep frying
They are grouped as pairs due to the similarities in the pairs.
Dry heat method in which food is placed on a rack for cooking.
Grilling - heat source is below the rack
Have a robust smoky taste
Heat source is charcoal gas wood or element
Heat source heats up metal to cook food which creates the grill marks
Crosshatch grill marks - creating a diamond shape grill mark on meat by repositioning the meat halfway through cooking
Heat source is above the food
Heat source is gas flame or element
11 Roasting and baking
Technique in which food is cooked by hot air trapped inside an oven and by being in contact with the pan that holds them.
As the hot air comes in contact with the food the surface of the food begins to heat up and dry out.
Surface color becomes deeper
Texture in meat becomes firmer
Texture in vegetable fruit becomes softer
Roasting refers to a whole item or a large piece of food.
Baking refers to smaller pieces of a larger food or mixtures
Whole chicken is roasted chicken pieces are baked
Water Bath method of placing food into a pan with a larger pan filled with water as a means of controlling the intensity of the heat.
Used for delicate items that you want to have a creamy smooth consistency.
13 Sauteing and Stir Frying
Cooking food quickly in a very small amount of fat in a pan over high heat.
Food used needs to be tender and thin.
Often coated with a seasoned flour
Cooked primarily by contact with pan
Fat helps to avoid sticking and add flavor
14 The art of Sauteing
First heat up the pan (referred to as conditioning the pan)
Then add oil when the pan is hot
Add food to cook
Adding food to a cold pan with cold oil will cause the food to stick
Recovery time time it takes for the pan to heat up again when food is added.
The more food added the more the pan cools off
Turn sauteed food halfway through cooking.
Stir as little as possible
15 Stir frying
Cooked in pan with round bottom and high sides (wok)
Foods are cut into small strips to they cook quickly
Stir and toss food constantly
Typical of Asian foods
Cooking foods in a small amount of hot fat just long enough to color the outside of the food
Gives food a rich brown color (meats)
Used to prepare large food quantities
Food is partially cooked to give color to the outside and then put in oven to finish cooking
Food is turned often to avoid burning
17 Pan Broiling
Like sauteing only no fat is used
Used for foods with a high fat content such as bacon
Fat that is released by the food is poured off as it forms referred to as dry sautéing
Uses lower heat
Typically used for vegetables
Cook at low heat in a small amount of fat
Food cooks in own juice that is released as it cooks
Need to stir more often
Smothering pan is covered to increase amount of juices that are retained
19 Pan Frying and Deep Frying
Food is cooked in hot oil in a pan
More oil used than in sauteing
Oil should come halfway up sides of food
Turn foods only once while cooking
Can partially cook thick foods then transfer to oven
Cooking entirely on top of stove might result in overcooking
Oil should be heated to temperature specified in recipe
Oil not hot enough food absorb greasy
Pan fried foods are tender and moist.
Common foods that are pan fried are vegetables fish chicken veal pork
Pan-fried foods are usually coated
Seasoned flour simplest is with salt pepper
Put food in flour and turn till coated or shake in bag
Standard breading dust with seasoned flour dip in beaten egg cover with breadcrumbs
Batters blend of flour liquid placed on food and immediately placed in pan
21 Deep frying
Cooking food completely covered in hot oil (usually 350 to 375)
Usually covered evenly with breading or batter
Breaded foods lowered into oil in basket
Battered foods lowered into oil with tongs
Foods should be cooked in small portions to reduce recovery time
22 Determining Doneness
Challenging as some foods can be cooked to various degrees of doneness
Need to take into consideration carryover cooking and resting food to help determine doneness
Carryover cooking cooking that continues after food is taken off heat due to food retaining heat.
Larger pieces of food will continue cooking longer
Cooking food to longer can result in overcooking due to carryover cooking
23 Resting Time
Allowing foods to set or rest for a period of time after cooking
Allows for carryover cooking so food can reach its proper doneness
Food is moister. During cooking juices move toward center of food so resting allows the juices to redistribute
Gives you time to finish side dishes or sauces
24 Moist Heat Cooking
Cooking methods where foods are cooked in a liquid.
These techniques have a built-in temperature control since most liquids will not rise much above 212 F.
Food is cooked from heat conducted through a pan to liquid and then to food by
Direct contact with the hot liquid
With steam that rises from the hot liquid
25 Changes to Food
Color on outside is same as inside
Texture may be firmer or softer depending on the food. The texture helps determine doneness.
Loss of nutritive elements in the water
To minimalize loss cut food just before cooking and cook as short a time as possible
26 Moist Heat Methods
Combination of moist dry heat methods
Cooking food with steam in a closed pot
Food does not come in contact with liquid
Helps retain nutrients
Popular with vegetable and tender meats and fish
Seasonings flavoring aromatics can be added to add flavor to foods
Pot should be opened as little as possible when steaming.
Food is completely covered with hot liquid
Used for tender foods (eggs fish chicken breasts fruit)
Cooking temperature is 160 to 170
Food is completely covered by hot liquid
Used for tougher cuts of meat
Temperature is 170-185.
Food is completely covered with hot liquid
Used for pasta and certain vegetables
Temperature is 212 (boiling point)
31 How Hot is the Liquid
Poaching (160-170 degrees)
Many bubbles cling to the sides and bottom of the pan. Some motion is visible on top of the liquid but is seems to be barely moving.
Simmering (170-185 degrees)
Size of bubbles increases and they rise to the surface more rapidly and more frequently. The surface shows more obvious signs of motion.
Boiling (212 degrees)
Bubbles are very large and rise very quickly to the surface. There is very much motion on the surface. Liquid that is boiling rapidly is said to be at a rolling boil.
32 Braising and Stewing
Food is first seared in hot oil (dry)
Helps food keep shape when cooking
Helps develop rich flavor
Food is then cooked in flavorful liquid or sauce
Braising food is left whole or in large pieces with enough liquid to partially cover it
Stewing smaller pieces of food that are completely covered with liquid
These foods have a rich complex flavor and a tender texture.
33 What foods are braised or stewed
Tougher cuts of meat
Firm-fleshed fish or seafood
Food must be able to stand up to the long gentle cooking process without completely falling apart.
Cooking liquid is used as a sauce which contains flavor and nutrients.
34 Determining Doneness
Dependent on the food and the person eating the food.
If food is served right away it will be cooked all the way through
If food is used in another dish it will be partially cooked
Names for doneness include blanched parcooked (parboiled) fully cooked
Food is cooked just long enough to cook the outer portion of the food.
Blanched vegetables will keep their brilliant color
Draws out strong flavors or aromas
Loosens skin so they are easier to peel
Place blanched foods immediately into ice water to stop carryover cooking
Food that is partially cooked
Helps to make you more efficient
Parcook food ahead of time and then finish cooking right before serving
Parboiled refers exclusively to partially boiling a food.
37 Fully Cooked
Food that is cooked all the way through or to the doneness you desire.
Remember to allow for carryover cooking
38 How to test for Doneness
Use a paring knife table fork or kitchen fork to pierce foods
Parcooked food will be easy to piece on the outside but resistant on the inside
Fully cooked food should be easily pierced all the way. These foods are said to be fork tender.
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