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Topics

- Five Fundamental Math Operations
- Precedence of Math Operations
- Using Parentheses to override precedence
- Writing and Interpreting VB Calculation

Statements - Mathematical Functions

A computer lets you make more mistakes faster

than any invention in human historywith the

possible exceptions of handguns and

tequila Mitch Ratcliffe

Numeric Operations in Computer Code

- Computers were invented to process large

quantities of numeric data - Computers perform arithmetic operations on

numeric values incredibly rapidly - All computer operations can be performed using

the basic operations of addition, subtraction,

multiplication, and division. - Most computer languages also provide for

exponentiation - Most also provide built in functions for more

complex operations

Objectives

- Understand the five fundamental arithmetic

operations in VB - Understand how to write and interpret

mathematical calculations in VB - Understand the precedence of mathematical

operations in computers and how parenthetical

grouping affects calculation order - Understand the use of predefined mathematical

functions available in VB

Five Fundamental Arithmetic Operations

- VB supports five built-in arithmetic operations
- Operation Conventional Notation Computer

Symbol - Addition 3 4 3 4
- Subtraction 3 - 4 3 - 4
- Multiplication 3 x 4 3 4
- Division 3 3 / 4
- Exponentiation 34 3 4

The Assignment Operation

- Many times the results of a calculation or other

operation are assigned to a variable, property,

or other value holder - iSum iFirstValue iSecondValue
- iSum Val(txtFirst.Text) Val(txtSecond.Text)
- MainMenu.Top (Screen.Height - MainMenu.Height)

/ 3 - The calculation on the right of the equal sign is

performed first and assigned to the location on

the left - The Equal Sign is an assignment operator

Using Numeric Calculations

- Legal statements
- x 4
- y 2
- z x 5
- t x 2
- txtPrice.Text x y
- Const Pi 3.14
- dblDiameter Pi sglRadius
- dSqrt x .5

- Illegal statements
- 4
- x y
- z x txtInput.Text
- sglPrice 1,456.98

Precedence of Numeric Calculations

- Q What is the result of 3 5 2A
- Numeric operations have a defined hierarchy or

precedence of calculation - 1. Exponentiation
- 2. Multiplication and division
- 3. Addition and subtraction
- 4. Left to right within categories
- Because multiplication precedes addition 5 is

multiplied by two giving 10 first after which the

three is added to give 13

Precedence Exercises

What are the results of the following

calculations if x 12 and y 4

- x y / 2
- y 3 / 4
- x 2 y - 2 x
- 8 x y / 3
- -8 y -2
- 16 (1 / 4)

Using Parentheses to Group Calculations

- Operations grouped in parentheses are performed

first, regardless of the natural order of

calculation3 5 2 13(3 5) 2 16 - Parentheses may be nested((3 5) 8) / (2 4)

- Parentheses may be used to visually format

mathematical expressions even if no change to the

calculation order is needed

Inner parentheses are evaluated first

More Precedence Exercises

Write computer expressions for each mathematical

expression

Numeric Functions

- VB (and most other programming languages) provide

predefined numeric calculations in the form of

functions - Functions often operate on a value and return

some transformation of the value - E.g. in x 25 y Sqr(x)Sqr( ) is a

predefined function which returns the square root

of its argument (x in this case)

Functions and Expressions as Arguments

- Functions may be nested
- E.g., in Math.Sqr(Math.Abs(x))
- the absolute value of x is determined first and

then becomes the argument of the square root

function - A calculation may be performed inside the

argument of a function - E.g., in Math.Sqr(x 2)
- the value of x is first squared and then the

square root of the result is taken - Functions are always calculated from the inside

out

Empty Variables in Mathematical Operations

- Variables which have never been assigned a value

are said to be empty - If a mathematical operation is performed on an

empty variable the variable behaves as if its

value is zero - Be very careful as division by zero results in a

runtime error which will crash the program. - NB Variables loaded from databases may sometimes

contain a null value which is different from

empty.

Converting Data Types

Introduces inefficiency

- VB will automatically convert many numeric data

types before performing calculations - Single precision values can be multiplied by

integers, assigned to currency variables etc. - Some conversions cannot take place
- String values cannot be assigned to explicitly

declared numeric variables (non variants) - Commonly arises when using text boxes, list

boxes, grid controls, etc.

The Val( ) Function

- Val( ) returns the numeric value of its argument
- Argument is typically a string but may be a

number - Val converts strings to numbers
- A common use of Val is to convert values which

must be treated as text into numbersintQty

Val(txtQty.Text)intCourse Val(cboCourseNumber.T

ext)sglPrice Val(InputForm.Tag) - Or use the Convert method

Some properties always contain characters

The Val ( ) Function Examples

- Val (123.54) 123.54
- Val () 0
- Val(123A45) 123
- Val(A123) 0
- Val( 123 456) 123456

Methods of the Math Class

(No Transcript)

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