1 Indian Film (Cine) Music Raja Harischandra (1913) 2 Overview
Most films are musicals (have song and dance numbers)
Popular among all castes and classes and often cross language barriers
Many large regional film industries
Widely disseminated via (pirated) cassettes
Films use playback singers to record the songs the stars lip sync
3 Lata Mangeshkar
Recorded 30000 songs for more than 2000 films between 1948 and 1984
Has sung in more than 20 major Indian languages
4 Musical Style
Blend of Indian and Western elements
Instruments violin clarinet conga sax synthesizers guitars etc.
Rhythms foxtrot polka
Harmony (use of chords)
Melodies mostly diatonic short phrases
Form (contrasting sections lack of improvisation)
Homogenous vocal quality
5 Musical Examples
Film Bhajan. Combines traditional devotional song form with Western characteristics.
Examples from the 1960s.
2006 Hindi film 6 History of Indian Film Industry
Cinema introduced in 1896 by the Lumiere brothers. Their tour included Bombay (now Mumbai).
1898 - First Indian films were of theatrical productions.
1912/13 First feature-length film. Subject is religious (life of Hindu saint).
1931 First musical
7 History (cont.)
actors were classically trained singers and dancers greater influence from Indian classical music tradition use of light classical genres
Films produced locally often reflecting reactions against British colonialism. Some were censored.
Post-1940s (1947-end of British rule)
British taxes and censorship forced many smaller companies out of business
Replaced by large corporations in Bombay (Bollywood) and Madras star system
8 Why Popular
Continuity between traditional rural theater and cinema in themes style
Widely disseminated outside of cinema
Fantasy element serves as escape for those in severe poverty (escapist)
Strong star system
Genre conducive to incorporation and blending of various Indian and non-Indian musics.
Vijaya Anand examples
Cooking Up a Song
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