The Cheyenne are North American Plains Indian people who speak a dialect of Algonkian.
Cheyenne means people of a different speech.
4 Who Are The Cheyenne
The ancient Cheyenne called themselves TsistsistaThe People.
5 A Brief of History
The Cheyenne originated on the west shore of the Great Lakes area where they had a sedentary and peaceful life.
They fished and lived in bark- covered huts.
6 A Brief of History (continued)
In the late 1600s the Cheyenne began their long journey to the west.
During that time the Cheyenne farmed fished hunted and made pottery.
7 A Brief of History (continued)
In the late 1700s the Cheyenne moved to the Black Hills of South Dakota where they developed their unique nomadic Plains culture and gave up agriculture and pottery.
8 A Brief of History (continued)
During the early 19th century the Cheyenne migrated to the center of Great Plains.
9 The Cheyenne
Location and Environment
Homes and Camps
Weapons for Hunting and Fighting
Arts and Crafts
Customs Beliefs and Religion
Role of Men Women and Children
Leadership and Government
Interactions with the Europeans
10 Location and Environment (Location)
The territory of the Cheyenne could be as far north as the Black Hills of South Dakota and as far south as the Staked Plain of the Texas. It was between the western Rocky Mountains and the east bank of the Mississippi River.
11 Location and Environment (Location)
Generally the plains area between the North Platte and Arkansas Rivers was the true home of the Cheyenne. It included Eastern Colorado and Wyoming western Kansas and Nebraska.
12 Location and Environment(Environment)
The center high plains where the Cheyenne settled lies in the center of Great Plains. It is extremely difficult for humans to settle in the land.
13 Location and Environment(Environment)
The climate of the land is harsh. There are frigid winds and blizzards in the winter and thunderstorms and hailstones in the summer.
14 Location and Environment(Environment)
The land is nearly treeless and is thickly carpeted with tall native grasses. This gives no protection from harsh weather.
Also the land has no main rivers. It is dry and lacks water.
15 Location and Environment(Environment)
Why did the Cheyenne choose this harsh place to live
Millions of buffalo herds roamed the center high plains since there was abundant buffalo grass.
16 Economy Sources
The Cheyenne were very dependent on the buffalo for food housing clothing and other items like tools and jewelry they also traded buffalo hides for other things.
17 Homes and Camps
The tepee was the home of the Cheyenne it was a conical structure
framed by angled poles and covered by buffalo hides.
It was designed to keep the inside cool in summer and warm in winter.
18 Homes and Camps (Continued) The Cheyenne tepee was unique because of its big size and beauty.
The tepee was white and shining under the sun since the Cheyenne used the buffalo skin that was specially treated.
19 Homes and Camps (Continued) What did it look like inside the tepee
The fireplace was in the center and the furniture and belongings were arranged symmetrically around the fireplace.
20 Homes and Camps (Continued)
The backrest made of willow made sitting more comfortable.
21 Homes and Camps (Continued)
The Cheyenne Camps were large since more hunters were needed.
The Cheyenne broke and formed their camp repeatedly and frequently their campsites followed the trail of buffalo.
22 Homes and Camps (Continued)
During winter the Cheyenne built their camp in a sheltered place and enjoyed their peaceful and restful life.
Buffalo was the main food of the Cheyenne they used the fresh buffalo meat to make soup or dried it in the sun.
Other animals and birds like deer moose elk and rabbits were also their food sources.
24 Food (Continued)
The Cheyenne favorite vegetable was the Indian turnip
The Cheyenne also ate some wild fruits such as chokeberry plums sand-berry and currants
The most common Cheyenne footwear was the moccasins.
The leggings were worn in the winter.
Cheyenne women wore the dress made of soft deerskin in the warm weather
and wore the buffalo skin dress in the winter. 27 Clothing(Men)
Cheyenne men usually wore breechcloth with a belt .
When it was cold they wore a robe made of buffalo skin.
Cheyenne men liked to wear the war bonnet made of eagle feathers.
They believed that it would protect them in the fighting.
Cheyenne women decorated the clothing
with beads feathers fringes and quills. They also painted the clothing. 30 Weapons for Hunting and Fighting
Cheyenne men used shields to protect themselves from the enemies.
To show their bravery they liked to use the lances to attack the enemies
31 Weapons for Hunting and Fighting(Continued)
Cheyenne men usually used arrows and bows to hunt animals and attack their enemies.
Their arrows were pointed with various shapes and tailed with feathers.
32 Weapons for Hunting and Fighting(Continued)
The Cheyenne used war clubs in the fighting. The club was made of a stone attached to a stick.
They also used spears for buffalo hunting .
33 Arts and Crafts
The Cheyenne had various tools included
Stone maul used to peg the tepee into the ground and smash the animal bones to make soup.
2. Flesher made from a buffalo bone used to scrape animal hides clean. 34 Arts and Crafts(Continued)
The Cheyenne made spoons and decorated them with strings and paints.
They also made cradle board to carry the baby safely as they were moving on the horse.
35 Arts and Crafts(Continued)
Cheyenne women were famous for making decorating and painting animal hinds.
They used hinds to make clothing bedding storage and tepee covers.
36 Arts and Crafts (Continued)
They used a tanning process to produce white and shining buffalo skin.
They used powdered earth porous bones and the special glue to paint the hinds.
They also decorated the hinds with beads feathers fringes and quills in a pattern.
37 Customs Beliefs and Religion(Beliefs)
The Cheyenne believed that Maheo was the creator of the world.
Four Sacred Persons the Maheyuno were positioned at four directions east west north and south where they guarded Maheos creation.
The Maheyuno controlled Maiyun lesser spirits who are in many forms like animal or birds.
38 Customs Beliefs and Religion(Beliefs)
The Cheyenne believed that the dead lived in harmony with Maheo.
They worshiped their deity by dancing and performing rituals.
39 Customs Beliefs and Religion(Sacred Objects)
One of the most important sacred objects was the Four Medicine Arrows.
The Cheyenne believed that two of the arrows had great power over buffalo and the other two over humans.
40 Customs Beliefs and Religion(Sacred Objects)
Bear Butte in the Black hills South Dakota was a sacred mountain to the Cheyenne.
It was mentioned in many of the Cheyennes sacred stories.
41 Customs Beliefs and Religion(Rituals)
One of the most important rituals the Sun Dance was held in the summer and lasted four days.
The dancer kept dancing without eating and drinking and ended up with his chest pierced.
This ritual was to show the bravery and the ability of standing pain.
42 Customs Beliefs and Religion(Rituals)
The most sacred ritual was the Renewal of the Four Medicine Arrows.
The religion leaders opened a leather bundle that held the arrows in the Sacred Arrow Lodge on the longest day of the year when all the tribe gathered together.
It was believed that the arrows would make buffalo and the enemies of the Cheyenne powerless.
43 Customs Beliefs and Religion(Marriage)
The boy asked a respected elder woman to propose to the girls family.
The bride rode the finest horse of her family and was led by an elder woman to the house of the groom.
The relatives of the groom carried the bride into the house and prepared her for the ceremony.
44 Customs Beliefs and Religion(Burial Customs)
The dead were buried with some possessions at a location far from the camp.
After painted and dressed the dead were placed on a high platform either in a tree or on a scaffold.
45 Role of Men Women and Children(Men)
Cheyenne men were the masters of hunting. They provided main economy sources for the family.
Cheyenne men were full of bravery and courage they protected their family and properties and served as warriors for their tribe.
46 Role of Men Women and Children(Women)
Raising children and caring for all the housework were the key responsibilities of Cheyenne women.
They cooked food made clothing bedding tepees and tools dressed hinds and saddled their husbands horses .
47 Role of Men Women and Children(Games for adult)
The Cheyenne played games at their free time. One of the popular games was the hoop and poles.
To play the game you needed to shoot the pole across the hoop when it passed.
48 Role of Men Women and Children(Children)
Cheyenne children played around and learned the skills they should have as grownups.
Boys learned to become hunters and warriors.
gtgt They used mini weapons to practice and rode ponies.
gtgt They played games mocking hunting and fighting.
49 Role of Men Women and Children(Children)
Girls helped their mothers and learned how to take care of children and housework.
gtgt They played with dolls and mini cradleboards to pretend to be a mother . gtgt They set up small tepees and pretended to move their camps. 50 Leadership and Government
The Cheyenne was well organized into 10 bands and governed by the Council of Forty-Four.
The council was made of 44 chiefs who served for 10 years. It was held annually.
51 Leadership and Government
The 44 chiefs -4 principal chiefs representing all numbers of tribes plus 4 chiefs elected from each of their 10 bands-discussed the issues- like when and where to hunt or move or with whom they should form an alliance.
52 Leadership and Government
These chiefs were peace makers they were elected for their sagacity courage generosity and self-control.
53 Leadership and Government
However the Cheyenne also had seven war societiesBowstring Soldiers Wolf Soldiers Crazy Dogs Red Shields Dog Soldiers Kit Foxes and Elk Soldiers.
54 Leadership and Government
Each Society was governed by major and minor leaders.
The societies were responsible for defense and for avenging deaths.
The Dog Soldiers were well known as hostile relentless warriors.
A Dog Soldier 55 Interaction With the European Settlers(Early encountering)
In 1806 the Cheyenne met Merewether Lewis and William Clark the first two representatives of the U.S. government.
A chief refused to take the peace medal offered by Clark.
56 Interaction With the European Settlers(Trade)
In 1834 Chief Yellow Wolf and his partner William Bent a fur trader built Bents fort a trading fort on the Arkansas River near the Cheyenne.
Through trading the Cheyenne became stronger and better.
57 Interaction With the European Settlers(Treaties and wars)
In 1825 the Cheyenne signed their first peace agreement with the U.S. government.
In 1851 the Cheyenne along with other Indian tribes signed the Treaty of Fort Laramie. The goal was set to bring peace by establishing specific boundaries for Indian territories.
58 A note on the division of the Cheyenne
By 1859 the Cheyenne were no longer united. They were divided into Northern Cheyenne who stayed in the north and Southern Cheyenne who stayed in the south.
From then on each tribe would fight its own battles and sign its own treaties.
59 Interaction With the European Settlers(Treaties and wars)
The Treaty of Fort Laramie did not bring the peace. Both settlers and the Cheyenne attacked each other.
The U.S. government sent their soldiers to fight the Cheyenne.
60 Interaction With the European Settlers(The Sand Creek Massacre)
In 1864 Between 400 and 500 Cheyenne men women and children were slaughtered in a brutal
unprovoked assault by Colonel Chivington and his soldiers at Sand Creek Colorado.
61 Interaction With the European Settlers(Treaties and wars)
In 1867 Chief Black Kettle signed the Treaty of Medicine Lodge which confined the Southern Cheyenne to a reservation in Oklahoma.
62 Interaction With the European Settlers(The Custers Last Stand)
The Northern Cheyenne along with the Teton Sioux continued to fight the U.S. troops.
In 1876 they killed General Custer and his 265 men in the battle of Little Big Horn often referred as Custers Last Stand.
63 Interaction With the European Settlers(Treaties and wars)
After the battle the Northern Cheyenne retreated into the deep hills to hide.
In 1877 they turned themselves over the U.S. authorities and were forced to travel 70 days on foot to join their Southern kin at Darlington Agency Oklahoma.
64 Interaction With the European Settlers(Treaties and wars)
The Northern Cheyenne missed their north home but they were not allowed to leave.
Dull Knife and Little Wolf and their 300 follower escaped from the reservation of Oklahoma.
Dull Knife 65 Interaction With the European Settlers(Treaties and wars)
Dull Knifes band were captured and some of them escaped again to join their Sioux friends in the South Dakota.
In 1879 Little Wolf and his band surrendered and were taken to Fort Keogh in Montana.
Little Wolf 66 Interaction With the European Settlers(Treaties and wars)
In 1884 most of the Northern Cheyenne moved to a reservation in Montana.
67 Todays Cheyenne
Today the Northern Cheyenne Reservation is in Montana and the Southern Cheyenne Reservation is in Oklahoma.
They live a life much like their non-Indian Americans.
However they still keep some of their traditions.
68 Thank you! Néáee! Once we were great and powerful nation our hearts were proud and our arms were strong -Porcupine Bear Virgina Driving Hawk Sneve 69 Bibliography
Sally Sheppard. The Cheyenne. United states of America franklin Watts Inc 1976
Evelyn Wolfson. From Abenaki to Zuni. United States of America Walker Publishing Company Inc 1988
Stan Hoig. The Cheyenne. United States of America Chelsea house of publisher 1989
Colin Caylor. What do we know about the Plain Indians. New York New York Peter Bedricks Books 1993
Liz Sonneborn. The Cheyenne Indians. New York New York Chelsea House of Publisher 1992
Robin May. The Plain Indians of North America. Vero beach Florida Rourke Publications Inc 1987
Virgina Driving Hawk. Sneve The Cheynnes. United States of America Holiday House 1996
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