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BRIDGES

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... in (probably) Utah; shows a log bridge, a stream, and houses. ... [Hell Gate Bridge (New York Connecting RailroadBridge) ... Golden Gate Bridge. Golden ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: BRIDGES


1
BRIDGES
  • Engineer-It Class
  • Summer 2004

2
History
  • Primitive Peoples
  • Logs
  • Slabs of Rocks
  • Intertwined Vines or Ropes
  • Roman EmpireFirst Great Bridge Builders
  • Timber Truss Bridges
  • Masonry Arch Bridges
  • Europeans
  • Followed HRE Until Iron and Steel Use
  • Nineteenth Century
  • Modern Long Bridges
  • Moveable Bridges

3
Rock Bridges
4
Wadi Rum Rock Bridge
5
View under Rainbow Bridge, a massive sandstone
bridge in Natural Bridges National Monument,
Utah, includes a dried up streambed. "Rainbow
Bridge, Utah."
6
Rope Bridges
7
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12
Log Bridges
13
LOG BRIDGE
  • Members of a Denver and Salt Lake Railroad
    Company (DSL) survey crew pose on a log bridge
    over the Colorado River in Gore Canyon (Grand
    County), Colorado.

14
View of a settlement in (probably) Utah shows a
log bridge, a stream, and houses. People sit on a
porch a United States flag waves from a pole.
15
U.S. Army soldiers from the Ohio Engineers,
building a small log bridge over a ditch, at Fort
Sheridan, Illinois
16
LOG BRIDGE
  • View of hot springs site enclosed by stone and
    wooden frame buildings, Hot Sulphur Springs, CO

17
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18
Covered Bridges
19
COVEREDBRIDGE
  • Bridges. Old covered bridge, Jackson River, Va.

20
Structure of covered bridge. Wallingford, Vermont
21
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25
Covered Bridge, Glen Canyon, Santa Cruz County,
CA
26
CONSTRUCTION
  • Must carry own weight and weight of traffic
  • Must withstand force of high winds
  • Must consider effects of contraction and/or
  • Expansion due to temperature changes
  • Most common materials
  • Woodtemporary
  • Steelfor long, strong spans
  • Reinforced concreteattractive designs but
    difficult to work with on large bridges
  • Prestressed concretestronger than reinforced,
    cheaper than steel

27
TYPES OF BRIDGES
  • Fixed
  • Moveable
  • Other

28
Beam or Girder Bridges
29
FIXED
  • Beam or Girder
  • Two parallel beams w/ flooring supported by piers
  • Span can be supported by trestle
  • Used for hwy over/underpasses or small stream
    crossings
  • ExampleCovered Bridge

30
Cars on a suspension bridge over a river,
possibly in Colorado.
31
enz_bridge.jpg
32
Millennium Bridge, London
33
ostruz.jpg www.prevodi-vertalingen.com/.../
ostruz.html
34
Truss Bridges
35
FIXED
  • Truss
  • Beam bridge strengthed by trusses (structural
    spts joined to form triangles with tie rods)
  • Lighter than ordinary beam sections of equal
    length
  • Useful for longer bridges

36
Timber Truss Bridge
37
Continuous Truss Bridges
38
View west of an iron truss bridge crossing the
Colorado River on the Denver and Rio Grande
Railroad Montrose line at Grand Junction,
Colorado people and horses are on a sand bar.
39
View of the bridge crossing the White River at
Meeker, CO on the Mesa and Flag Creek road.
40
White Water Creek Bridge, Spanning White Water
Creek, Bernard vicinity, Dubuque County, IA
41
Truss Bridge
View of a trestle bridge that crosses Arastra
Gulch near Silverton (San Juan County), Colorado.
42
Jefferson Barracks BridgeLocation Mississippi
River, Jefferson Barracks, Missouri
43
Simple Truss Bridges
44
FAI 24 Bridge Over the Ohio RiverPaducah,
Kentucky
www.modjeski.com/projects/ servproj/paducah.htm
45
gcdranet.homelinux.com/davehonan/ bridges/il.html
Cairo
46
Ohio River ferry and railroad bridge, Metropolis,
IL
47
Arch Bridges
48
FIXED
  • Arch
  • One or more arches
  • Masonry, reinforced concrete or steel
  • Roadway on toop of arches or suspended by cables
  • Spans can be longer than beam or truss

49
Aquaduct
50
Old stone bridge at Bull Run Battlefield.
Manassas, Virginia.
51
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52
Stone bridge in Rock Creek Park.
53
Stone bridge, Elizabeth Park, Hartford, Ct..
54
Old Stone Bridge, Boonton, N.J..
55
Stone Bridge at Bowling Green, Gallatin vicinity,
Sumner County, TN
56
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57
Segovia, Spain
58
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59
Franklin Park, Ellicott Bridge, Emerald Necklace,
Boston, MA
60
Pont du Gard
61
Arch bridge, Bellows Falls, Vt..
62
Bayonne Bridge, Spanning Kill Van Kull between
Bayonne Staten Is, Bayonne, Hudson County, NJ
63
Kill van Kull Bridge
64
Hell Gate Bridge (New York Connecting
RailroadBridge), New York.
65
Hell Gate Bridge (New York Connecting
RailroadBridge), New York.
66
Steel Arch Bridge, Niagara.
67
http//www.brokk.com/images/jpg/sando.jpg
68
Sydney, Australia
69
Arches can also be set above the deck as on the
Sydney harbour bridge in Australia. This allows
much more space beneath for ships to pass under.
www.bardaglea.org.uk/.../ bridge-types-arch.html
70
Blue Water Bridges are a major international
crossing over the St. Clair river at the southern
end of Lake Huron
Blue Water Bridge
71
Eads Bridge, St. Louis
72
Port Mann Bridge, Coquitlam-Surrey BCThis
graceful steel arch, once the third-longest of
its kind in the world, carries the Trans-Canada
highway across the Fraser River. In 2002 its
capacity was increased with the addition of an
eastbound high occupancy vehicle (HOV) lane,
bringing the total to five
www.balsabridge.com/ bridge-van.htm
73
Cantilever Bridges
74
FIXED
  • Cantilever
  • Double-ended brackets supporting a center span
  • Shore end of each cantilever firmly anchored
  • Center supported by pier

75
Quebec Bridge
76
Quebec Bridge
77
Quebec Bridge
78
Quebec Bridge
79
Quebec Bridge
80
Quebec Bridge
81
Quebec Bridge
On June 15, 1907 an inspecting engineer noted
that two girders of the anchor was misaligned by
a quarter of an inch.  Cooper called this a "not
serious" problem.  In the inspection report in
August, 1907, it was noted that the girders had
moved out alignment a bit more and "appeared
bent".  Although this condition was a bit more
concerning, the work continued.
82
Scotland's Firth of Forth
A period museum photo shows cranes atop the
massive structure. The bridge was constructed
from 1882-1890, 2.5 KM (1.5 miles) across
Scotland's Firth of Forth.  Note reflection of
photographer from glass frame.  
http//www.pre-engineering.com/resources/forth/for
thbridge.htm
83
http//www.brantacan.co.uk/cantilever.htm
84
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85
Lewis and Clark Bridge (Longview-Rainier Bridge)
across the Columbia River.
86
Queensboro Bridge, Roosevelt Island, New York,
N.Y..
87
Astoria bridge
88
Suspension Bridges
89
FIXED
  • Suspension
  • Roadway hangs from vertical cables supported by
    overhead cables strung between two or more towers
  • Longest spans
  • Costly
  • Difficult to design
  • Highly susceptible to winds and swaying
  • Cables can be up to three feet in diameter

90
Tanana River suspension bridge.
http//tapseis.anl.gov/guide/photo/Tanana_Bridge.h
tml
91
Tsing Ma Bridge, Hong Kong
92
Akashi-Kaikyo Bridge, Japan
93
Brooklyn Bridge
94
The 3rd Carquinez Strait Bridge will replace the
original bridge that was built in 1927.
95
Ambassador Bridge
96
Ambassador Bridge
97
Golden Gate Bridge
98
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Golden Gate Structures
101
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102
When it opened in 1964, the Verrazano Narrows
Bridge was the world's longest suspension span.
Today, its length is surpassed only by the Humber
Bridge in England.
103
Verrazano
104
Tacoma Narrows Bridge collapsing, Tacoma,
Washington, 1940 On the morning of November 7,
1940, the Tacoma Narrows Bridge twisted violently
in 42-mile-per-hour winds and collapsed into the
cold waters of the Puget Sound. The disaster --
which luckily took no human lives -- shook the
engineering community and forever changed the way
bridges were built around the world. Roadway of
Tacoma Narrows Bridge twisting violently in a
windstorm, Tacoma, Washington, 1940
105
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106
Cable-Stayed Bridges
107
FIXED
  • Cable-Stayed
  • Suspended by cables that run directly down to
    roadway from central towers
  • Less costly than suspension
  • Quickly constructable
  • Spans must be limited in length

108
Sunshine Skyway Bridge, St. Petersburg and
Bradenton, Florida
109
Sunshine Skyway Bridge, St. Petersburg and
Bradenton, Florida
110
Clark Bridge in Alton, IL
111
Clark Bridge in Alton, IL
112
Clark Bridge in Alton, IL
113
Dames Port Florida
114
Dames Port Florida
115
Dames Port Florida
116
Swing Bridges
117
MOVEABLE
  • Swing
  • Central span turned 90 degrees on pivot pier
    placed in middle of waterway
  • Double swing possible

118
Catalog Advertisement
119
Moveable Bridge
120
BRIDGE ACROSS SHATT-AL-ARAB, IRAQ
121
Detail of south truss showing truss configuration
and connections HAER, MASS,2-WIND,1-3
122
Detail of south truss showing truss configuration
and connections HAER, MASS,2-WIND,1-3
123
Coleman Bridge, Spanning Phelps Brook, on Windsor
Bush Road, at th, Windsor, Berkshire County, MA
124
Bascule Bridges
125
MOVEABLE
  • Bascule
  • One or two sections not supported by piers
  • Balanced on one end by counterweights
  • Section jackknifes up to allow passage of ships
  • Most common type of highway drawbridge

126
View of an elevated train crossing the Van Buren
Street Railroad Bridge which spanned the Chicago
River from the Loop to the Near West Side
community area in Chicago, Illinois.
127
View of a bascule bridge over the Chicago River
in Chicago, Illinois.
128
Haarlem old lifting bridge.
Lifting bridges are moveable bridges which enable
boats to pass. They vary from simple wooden
designs such as many seen in the Netherlands to
large steel structures which carry heavy roads
such as the bascule bridge in Docklands.
129
Erie Street Bridge, a bascule bridge, with the
two leaves in raised position
130
Sault Ste. Marie International Bridge
131
Erie Avenue BridgeNewberry Bridge
132
Vertical Lift Bridges
133
MOVEABLE
  • Vertical Lift
  • Central span extends between two towers
  • Balanced by counterweights
  • Variation of this type is bridge over
    Shatt-al-arab River in IraqRoadway sinks into
    water to allow ships to pass over it

134
Vertical lift Baltimore (Pratt) through-truss
railroad bridge
135
Cape Cod Canal Railroad Bridge Buzzards Bay,
Massachusetts
136
Leamington Lift Bridge, Scotland
137
Goethals Bridge, Spanning Arthur Kill from New
Jersey to Staten Isl, Staten Island, Richmond
County, NY
138
Goethals Bridge, Spanning Arthur Kill from New
Jersey to Staten Isl, Staten Island, Richmond
County, NY
139
GUIABA RIVER AT PORTO ALEGRE, BRAZIL
140
The vertical lift bridge that carries US-41
across the Portage Canal.
141
Aerial bridge, Duluth, Minn..
142
Aerial bridge, Duluth, Minn..
143
Aerial bridge, Duluth, Minn..
144
Bailey Bridges
145
OTHER
  • Bailey
  • Small truss bridge made in sections
  • Assembled on shore
  • Pushed out from shore to cover span
  • Transportable to new sites

146
Bailey
Tank destroyer advances along a mountain road,
Italy
147
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149
Pontoon Bridges
150
OTHER
  • Pontoon
  • Floats on water
  • Can be disassembled and moved to new site
  • Supported by pontoons or barges

151
The U.S. Army's Sava River bridge is taken apart
at nightfall and put together in the morning
152
View of James River Pontoon Bridge, from south
side, above Jones' Landing.
153
Pontoon bridges, North Anna, constructed by the
50th N.Y.V. Engineers, below railroad bridge,
where a portion of the 2nd Corps, under Gen.
Hancock crossed 23rd May, 1864
154
Broadway Landing, Va. Pontoon bridge across the
Appomattox
155
Evergreen Floating Bridge
156
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157
Evergreen Bridge.The official name of the
bridge is the Governor Albert D. Rosellini Bridge
at Evergreen Point, after a popular former
governor who was in office when the bridge
opened.
158
Combined Bridges
159
Stony Brook glen, Shawmut Bridge, Dansville,
N.Y..
160
Knie_bridge
161
Lake_Pontchartrain_Causeway-vi.jpg
162
Lake_Pontchartrain_Causeway-vi.jpg
163
Old Alton Bridge
164
Name that Bridge
  • Give the type for each.

165
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