France would help change the path of history (Yorktown).
All Americans had to make a choice.
3 The First Two Years Battle For Boston
British General Thomas Gage
Located in Boston.
Royal Governor of Massachusetts.
Boston was surrounded by American encampments.
Grew following Concord and Lexington.
Did not have the equipment to drive the British from Boston.
Not even a single canon.
Green Mountain Boys and Ethan Allen
Capture canons and artillery from Fort Ticonderoga (NY).
4 The First Two Years Battle For Boston
General Gage issued proclamation
Amnesty to rebels who surrendered.
Armed rebels are traitors.
Colonists expanded their fortifications outside Boston.
June 17 1775
British ships pounded Breeds Hill with canon fire.
William Howe led 2400 troops to take the hill.
Ordered frontal attack.
Near massacre of British soldiers.
5 The First Two Years Battle For Boston
June 17 1775 cont
Americans ran out of ammunition.
British charged up the hill.
Bayoneted the few remaining rebels.
British suffered more casualties than in any other battle of the American Revolution.
Battle of Bunker Hill.
6 Washington Takes Charge
June 3 1775
George Washington arrived at Cambridge (Mass) to take command of his army.
Men fired muskets at random.
Used muskets to start fires.
Used muskets to shoot at geese.
Dirty and smelly.
But not surprised.
These men were not soldiers.
Chaos created by fear boredom excitement homesickness.
7 Washington Takes Charge
George Washington sets things straight
Reorganized militia units.
Replaced incompetent officers.
Strict moral codes
Worship attendance required.
8 1776 The British Strategy
Reorganizing and making plans.
Learned of Arnolds victory at Ticonderoga.
Laid plans to evacuate Boston.
Thomas Gage leaves for Nova Scotia.
General William Howe takes command.
Governor of Canada assures him that Canada is loyal to the crown.
Set out to locate loyalist hotbeds in America.
New York New Jersey Pennsylvania Carolinas.
Overestimated number of loyalists.
Tried to win over Americans who were undecided or wavering.
Abuses on American citizens by British and Hessian troops made this difficult.
Moved War south in 1776.
9 1776 The British Strategy
Southern campaign goes badly for the British.
Coordinating troops and supply lines was difficult.
Not enough British troops could be brought in to support Loyalists.
Defeated at Battle of Moores Creek (Feb. 1776).
British moved to South Carolina.
Abandoning North Carolina loyalists.
10 1776 The British Strategy
Ready to attack South Carolina.
Port of Charleston.
Fleet of 50 ships and 3000 men.
High tide stranded troops on islands.
British cannon fire could not penetrate colonial defenses.
British end southern campaignfor now.
Loyalists denounced mobbed imprisoned tortured.
11 Escape from New York
General William Howe
Preparing massive invasion of New York.
British sailed into New York Harbor.
Largest expeditionary force of the 18th century.
30000 troops (1/3 were Hessians).
Outnumbered population of New York.
Howe did not want to attack Americanspaused.
12 Escape from New York
General George Washington
Rushed army from Massachusetts to defend New York.
August 22 1776
British advance began.
Moved toward Brooklyn neck of Long Island.
Continental Army broke and disintegrated.
Retreated to Manhattan Island.
Attacked on September 15.
Retreated towards north and followed by British.
Continental Army has a victory.
Still in retreat.
British stopped advancing.
13 Battle of Trenton
General Howe (British)
Established winter quarters in New York.
Too nervous to establish winter quarters.
Troop enlistments about to end.
Needed to turn things around Needed a target.
Trenton New Jersey.
3000 Hessians at garrison.
December 24 1776
Washington and his troops crossed the icy Delaware River.
14 (No Transcript) 15 Battle of Trenton
Battle of Trenton
Hessians not expecting trouble.
Early morning of December 25 1776
Dazed hung over and confused the Hessians surrendered.
Washington did not lose one soldier.
Much needed victory.
Washington followed victory with plea to troops.
The Continental Army would live to fight another day.
16 Battle of Princeton
Washington crossed into New Jersey.
Confronted the British.
Bravery of Washington.
Washington charged after them.
Trenton and Princeton victories
Raised the morale of the Continental Army.
Winter quarters (77) at Morristown NJ.
17 Battle of Princeton
The war was still an up hill battle.
Spring the British would go for Philadelphia.
Washingtons requests for supplies
Met with delay.
William Howe sails up Chesapeake Bay.
Congress fled as news of Howes plans spread.
South of Philadelphia
Americans attempt to stop British advance.
British experience no major resistance when occupying the city.
British occupy the American capital.
19 Gentleman Johnny in New York
British General John Burgoyne (Gentleman Johnny).
Plan to sever New England from other colonies.
Burgoyne to go south from Montreal.
Anther group from east with Iroquois warriors.
Howe would come in from New York.
The three would meet at Albany NY.
Thus isolating New England.
Giving British chance to crush rebellion.
20 Gentleman Johnny in New York
Problems with Burgoynes plans
No understanding of terrain.
Overestimated Iroquois support.
Howe never informed of plans.
Still in Philadelphia (not New York).
Plan in action
Burgoyne left Montreal July 1777.
Retook Fort Ticonderoga.
Terrain slowed advance to snails pace.
Food and supplies ran low.
Attacked by Ethan Allen and Green Mountain Boys.
Reach Albanyalone and stranded.
September1777 Planned retreat north.
Forced to surrender on October 17 1777.
To American force led by Horatio Gates.
21 Winter of 1777 Valley Forge
News of Burgoynes surrender
Gave a powerful boost to American confidence.
Gave a major blow to British confidence.
General George Washington
Knew the victory was not the end of the war.
Winter quarters at Valley Forge Pennsylvania.
Sent urge requests for money to support Army.
Congress ignored the Generals pleas. Why
Confident in a short war.
22 Spring at Last
Spring 1778 brought several changes
Washingtons army better trained.
Baron von Steuben.
General William Howe called back to England.
Replaced by Henry Clinton.
Immediately laid plans to abandon Philadelphia.
The French formally recognized the independence of the United States of America.
Did not immediately alter the situation.
Following the defeat of John Burgoyne at Saratoga.
The British used a more cautious approach.
Due to the absence of French naval ships.
The Americans held back a bit.
Aware of the dangers of French support for colonies.
Main supply line to British in Philadelphia was the Delaware River.
This would be an attractive target for French ships.
British were on the march out of Philadelphia.
East through New Jersey to New York.
Determined to take advantage of British retreat from Philadelphia.
Sent Charles Lee to fight the British.
At Monmouth in New Jersey.
Lees leadership was a disaster.
Washington took over.
Americans drove the British back.
The Battle of Monmouth (June 28 1778)
Not a decisive victory for Washington.
A good recovery from certain defeat.
Molly Pitcher 26 Stalemate!!
Charles Lee was discharged from the Army.
The Continental Army was inactive.
The Continental Army suffered from discipline problems.
Washington to von Steuben
The prospect my dear Baron is gloomy
War moved West and South.
Fall/Winter of 1778
Deadly Indian attacks.
Western Kentucky and Virginia.
Promoted by the British.
Indian allies to the British would remain a serious problem in the backcountry.
28 The War Goes South
Fall of 1778
British start moving troops from New York to the South.
British launch an attack on Savannah Georgia.
Resistance in Georgia collapsed.
Henry Clinton sailed for Charleston SC.
Charleston fell to British control in May of 1780.
The Americans lost the major city of the South.
Expensive victory for the British.
29 The War Goes South
After the victory at Charleston
Henry Clinton returned to New York.
Left Charles Cornwallis in charge.
To conquer South Carolina.
Joined by loyalists.
Many had been fighting since the British abandoned the South in 1776.
Victory at Charleston increased number of loyalist guerrillas.
A bloody civil war started.
Ambushes arson and brutality.
30 The War Goes South
Loyalists controlled the South.
Americans also used guerrilla fighters in the South.
Francis Marion (Swamp Fox)
Recruited black and white men to join his band of raiders.
Harassed Cornwalliss army.
Cut British lines of communication between Charleston and inner South Carolina.
31 The War Goes South
When fighting broke out between the loyalists and patriot guerrillas
Very few rules of war were honored.
Battle of Kings Mountain.
Patriot guerrillas surrounded loyalists.
Killed them one by one.
Farms and homes plundered.
32 The War Goes South
Southern Continental Army
General Horatio Gates.
Very little success against Cornwallis.
Gates humiliated at Camden (SC).
Washington replaced Gates with Nathanael Greene.
Greene takes command
Unable to confront Cornwallis head on.
Negotiated with several Tribes and got support of all but Creeks.
Split his military
Sent 600 troops to western South Carolina.
Command Daniel Morgan.
33 The War Goes South
Cornered by British on open meadow The Cowpens.
Had led the British on a chase across the roughest South Carolina countryside.
British were tired and frustrated.
Americans chose to fight.
Returned to main army under the command of Greene.
Important lesson learned.
34 The War Goes South
General Cornwallis tries to attack Greenes forces
Green led the British on a long exhausting chase.
Guildford Courthouse (NC).
Americans forced to withdraw.
British loses were high.
Cornwallis headed to Wilmington to recover.
The southern patriots were too strong.
Loyalist support fading.
Heads to Virginia.
35 The War Goes South April 1781.Green Street in Fayetteville Harmony Hall PlantationWhite Oak NC. 36 Treason and Triumph
Strained by months of idleness.
Disheartened by Benedict Arnolds treason
Plotted to hand West Point to the British.
Harsh blow to Americans.
37 Treason and Triumph
Washington meets with French Naval Commander Rochambeau.
Washington pushed to attack New York.
Proposed moving against British in Virginia.
Admiral de Grasse and his fleet already in route to Chesapeake Bay.
Washington had no choice.
July 6 1781 March to Virginia begins.
38 Treason and Triumph
Unaware of American/French force.
Fought local Virginia militia units.
When he learned of Washington/Rochambeaus approach
Settled in port of Yorktown.
Prepared for serious battle.
39 Treason and Triumph
General Henry Clinton.
Learns of Cornwallis situation.
Sends small number of ships to help.
Too little too late.
40 Treason and Triumph
French/American forces in Virginia.
De Grasses navy arrives in Chesapeake Bay.
41 Treason and Triumph
French ships unloaded canon fire on British position at Yorktown.
Washington directed a steady barrage of artillery fire against the British position at Yorktown.
British troops dazed.
October 17 1781
42 Continental General Benjamin Lincoln 43 Treason and Triumph
Fighting continued for another year.
British occupations of New York Charleston and Savannah continued.
Yorktown convinced the British that victory was out of reach.
March 4 1782
Parliament votes to end the War.
Independence was won.
44 End of Lesson
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