The process by which the structure of the self is relaxed in the safety of the clients relationship with the therapist and previously denied experiences are perceived and then integrated into an altered self.
The process involving interpersonal relationships between a therapist and one or more clients by which the former employs
psychological methods based on systematic knowledge of the human personality in attempting to improve the mental health of the latter.
4 COUNSELING AS HYGIOLOGY
Hygiology is the study of the problems of normal people and the prevention of the incidence of serious emotional difficulties.
Counseling could be more appropriately concerned with hygiology than with psycho-pathology of behavior.
5 COUNSELING PROCESS 6 ESTABLISHING A RELATIONSHIP
Rapport refers to the psychological climate that emerges from the interpersonal contact between counselor and client.
Rapport will be affected by a number of factors including the counselors personal and professional qualities and the clients interpersonal history and anxiety state.
First impressions plays an important role in building rapport state.
Transference occurs when the client associates certain fictional qualities with the mother.
Transference can be either positive (favorable comparison) or negative (unfavorable comparison).
The relationship is a evolving and mature process.
The skillful counselor develop a self congruent style for meeting the clients.
Counselor should have adequate social skills.
Attending or active listening is crucial.
The relationship is not established in a single contact.
Reflection is crucial.
8 ASSESSING THE PROBLEM
It involves the collection and classification of information related to the clients reason for seeking help.
Actually problem definition process.
Assessment can be in 2 ways
1. Depends on the counselors theoretical and philosophical view of human problems.
2. Depends on the conditions present in the clients situation and the counselors understanding of those conditions.
Clients problems may be conceptualized as
Maladaptive interpersonal patterns
Combination of all these
Corsiniin 1984 classified all above as affective behavioral or cognitive in origin.
While assessing the problem the constraints of personal bias or theoretical blind spots must be avoided.
10 In short 11 GOAL SETTING
The act of setting goal involves making a commitment to a set of conditions a course of action or an outcome.
The goal has to be set in order to encertain the progress of sessions.
Skills in goal setting
Counselors inferential skills.
Differentiation between ultimategoalsintermediate goals and immediate goals.
Teaching clients to think realistically in intermediate and immediate goals.
Goals an be changed through sessions.
12 INTIATING INTERVENTIONS
The whole object of counseling is to initiate and facilitate desirable change.
Knowledge of appropriate uses
Knowledge of typical responses
13 TERMINATION FOLLOW UP
The ultimate criterion is the successful termination of client.
There will be tendency to set new goals create new activity and continue the process.
Termination by degree.
Denial as a part of recovery process.
In order to ensure the secure feeling a follow up appointment of 6 weeks3 months or even 6 months can be offered.
14 COUNSELLING METHODS
15 DIRECTIVE METHODS
In this method the therapist has major role and the client acts accord to the instructions to the therapist.
Eg. Psychoanalytic techniques behavioral therapies cognitive therapy etc.
Also known as prescriptive or counselor-centered counseling.
Leading exponents are Sigmund Freud E G WilliamsonWatsonetc
16 ASSUMPTIONS OF DIRECTIVE METHOD
It is problem-centered and not paid-centered.
According to the leading proponent of this school of thought E G Williamson following are assumptions.
Focus on the problem of counselee.
The counselor plays the active role than the client.
In this method counseling is an intellectual process rather than emotional process.
17 STEPS OF DIRECTIVE METHOD
According to E G Williamson the steps are
Treatment of counseling includes
.Establishing rapport with the student
.Interpreting the collected data to the student
.Advising or planning a program of action
with the client.
.Assisting the client to carry out the plan.
.Referring to counselors in order to diagnose.
18 ADVANTAGES OF DIRECTIVE METHOD
Counseling is economical in time.
It is problem centered. so the therapist will be more objective.
Emphasis on intellectual intervention.
Direct persuasive and explanatory techniques will be used.
19 LIMITATINS OF DIRECTIVE COUNSELING
Client does not gets an opportunity to self analyze and will not be capable in solving new problems of adjustment.
It makes the client over dependent and it kills his initiative.
Directive method is not suitable in solving problems regarding emotional maladjustment.
Lack of information regarding counseling leads to ineffectiveness to the counseling.
This method does not guarantee that the counselee will not make any mistakes in future.
20 NON-DIRECTIVE METHODS
In this method much importance is given to the client. It acts as the main advantage of the non-directive method of counseling.
Eg. Humanistic approach (client centered or person centered therapy)
It is also called as permissive counseling or client centered counseling.
Chief exponent is Carl Roger.
21 ASSUMPTIONS OF NON DIRECTIVE COUNSELLING
More emphasis on client.
Emotional aspects are more important than the intellectual ones.
Creation of an atmosphere where the client can work out and elaborating his understanding.
Clients voluntary choice of goals and conscious selection of course of action is possible.
22 STEPS IN CLIENT CENTERED THERAPY
Carl Roger suggested the following steps
Help is sought and not given.
The counselor defines the situation and creates congenital atmosphere.
The attitude of the therapist is of sympathyfriendshipand affection. He shows interest and encourages free expression of feeling.
The therapist accepts and recognizes the positive as well as negative feelings.
The therapist leads the client from negative feelings to positive self-feelings from emotional release to gradual insight.
Helps to translate the insights into action.
Positive steps are taken.
Gradually a decreased need for help is felt and the client is the one who decides to end the contact.
Slow but sure process to make the individual capable of making the adjustment.
No tests are used and the laborious side is deleted.
Removes the emotional block and helps the individual to bring the repressed thoughts on conscious level thereby reducing the tension.
A time consuming process.
Immaturity of the client will definitely question the quality of decision.
The therapists passive attitude may irritate the client.
26 DIRECTIVE VS. NON DIRECTIVE METHOD 27 ECLECTIC COUNSELING
It is the synthesis and combination of directive and non-directive counseling.
Here the counselor will not be too active or too passive.
Just follows the middle path between directive method and non directive method.
Method of counseling decided on the basis of the personality and needs of the counselee.
Passive methods should be used whenever possible.
Active methods may used with specific indication.
Enables the client to tell the story in order to get emotional release.
Until simpler methods have failed complicated methods cannot be attempted.
All counseling should be client centered.
When the client is unable to make a decision then only active methods should be executed.
Diagnose of the cause.
Analysis of the problem.
Preparation of a tentative plan for modifying factors.
Securing effective conditions of counseling.
Interviewing and stimulating the client to develop his own resources and to assume its responsibility for trying new modes of adjustment.
Proper handling of any related problems which may contribute to adjustment.
Not easily possible only proper merging gives effective results.
It is vaguesuperfical and opportunistic.
31 STRATEGIES FOR HELPING CLIENTS
Written facilitation of free association
Reflection of the unconscious
Devaluing the clients maladjusted resolution of conflicts by showing its excessive cost.
32 CHARACTERSTICS OF AN EFFECTIVE COUNSELING RELATIONSHIP
Genuineness it involves
2. Spontaneity Assertiveness
Unconditional positive regard
33 THANK YOU
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