1 Robots and Artificial Intelligence 2 Some definitions
Cyborg - cybernetic organism - part organic, part machinee.g. human cyborgs (humans augmented with technology OR machine cyborgs (machines incorporating organic components)
Robot - an automated machine designed to carry out functions usually performed by humans (usually controlled by a computer program) - includes industrial robots as well as humanoid robots (androids)
The word robot first used by Karel Capek in 1920 in a play called R.U.R. (Rossum's Universal Robots). Capek derived the word 'robot' from the Czech word 'robota' meaning slave labour'
3 Some definitions
A.I. - artificial intelligence
the branch of computer science that deals with writing computer programs that can solve problems creatively the aim of AI scientists is to imitate or duplicate intelligence in computers and robots source http//www.hyperdictionary .com
intelligence exhibited by anything manufactured (i.e. artificial) by humans or other sentient beings or systems (should such things ever exist on Earth or elsewhere) sourcehttp//en.wikipedia .org/wiki/AI
I.A. - intelligence augmentation/amplification
using computer systems to aid human mental processes and thinking
4 Conceptual Dilemmas in AI
How do we judge if an AI is truly intelligent?
1997 - IBMs Big Blue defeats Kasparov
Who really won, Big Blue or the programmers?
What is intelligence?
Is the Turing Test a true test of intelligence?
(Annual Loebner prize)
5 Conceptual Dilemmas in AI
Strong AI - a system that is truly intelligent, i.e. exhibits self-awareness
Weak AI - a system that simulates intelligence or intelligent behaviour
Expert systems v. rounded human intelligence
Embodied versus disembodied intelligence
6 Conceptual Dilemmas in AI
Embodiment and disembodiment
Fantasy of disembodied consciousness
How important is a body to intelligence and consciousness?
Embodied intelligence has proved to be very difficult to program/create
7 Development of mobile robots
The development of mobile, autonomous robots has proved far more difficult than originally anticipated
Building and programming robots to be able to interact in real-world environments is very difficult (hardware and software issues)
common sense difficult to program - mobile robots require sophisticated multi-tasking and problem solving abilities
8 Artificial Intelligence Approaches
top down, load data into a computer
bottom up, let the computer learn like people do
connectionismmodels via neural nets the massively parallel architecture of the brain with its huge numbers of connected components
9 AI - top down approaches
Cyc (pronounced "psych") developed by Douglas Lenat, CEO of Cycorp since 1984. Cyc is programmed with common sense rules and data about the world and an 'inference engine' that allows it to learn from what it already knows. (http//www.cyc.com)
IBMs Big Blue chess playing AI
ALICE chatterbot created in 1995 by Dr. Richard Wallace (http//www.alice.org)
10 MITs COG - bottom up approach Rodney Brooks has been devloping Cog since 1992. Cog learns about the world the same way an infan t does by interacting with it. Cog can see and hear and has sensors on its fingers allowing it to interact with the world. Image source http//www.superstart.org/images/mi t-news-cog-alone.jpg 11 MITs Kismet Kismet is a robot designed at MIT to act like a human child and display emotional responses. Image source http//www.ai.mit.edu/projects/socia ble/media.html 12 Robot predictions
"By 2010 we will see mobile robots as big as people but with cognitive abilities similar in many respects to those of a lizard. The machines will be capable of carrying out simple chores, such as vacuuming, dusting, delivering packages and taking out the garbage. By 2040, I believe, we will finally achieve the original goal of robotics and a thematic mainstay of science fiction a freely moving machine with the intellectual capabilities of a human being.
Hans Moravec (Carnegie Mellon University Robotics Institute)
Source "Rise of the Robots", Scientific American, December 1999 pp.124-135 Available http//www.frc.ri.cmu.edu/hpm/project.archive/rob ot.papers/1999/SciAm.scan.html
13 Companion Robots
Companion robots are embodied, mobile AIs that are designed to carry out a variety of functions in a domestic environment
Helping the elderly
Performing simple domestic tasks
Some examples ...
14 Sonys AIBO Image source http//www.mikrobitti.fi/nettijatkot /2001/04/aibo/aibo.jpg 15 RoboSciences RS-01 RoboDog Image source http//www.roboscience.com 16 NECs PaPeRo (Partner-type Personal Robot) incorporates artificial intelligence technology including behaviour control and conversation skills has speech recognition and speech synthesi s capabilities communicates using natural langua ge and LEDs to generate facial expressions Image source www.incx.nec.co.jp/robot 17 Mitsubishis Wakamaru Wakamaru is designed to interact with a human family and become part of the family Image source http//www.sdia.or.jp/mhikobe-e/prod ucts/etc/robot.html 18 Hondas ASIMO robots ASIMO can navigate homes, offices and streets. According to a company press release ASIMO can "greet approaching people, follow them, move in the direction they indicate, and even recognize their faces and address them by name". Prototype version only - not currently for sale. Image source http//world.honda.com/ASIMO 19 Fujitsus Maron-1 An Internet-enabled robot that can be operated by mobile phone for remote household monitoring and remote control of household appliances Image sourcehttp//pr.fujitsu.com/en/news/2003/03 /13.html 20 Software robots - softbots
These are virtual robots simulated in cyberspace rather than physically embodied in the real world
21 Jeeves "Greetings. What can I help you find today?" Jeeves is a virtual butler (an intelligent agent) on the Ask Jeeves search engine. Jeeves responds to natural language questions rather than the usual Boolean search commands used by other search engines. http//www.ask.com Image source http//www.ask.com 22 The Sims http//www.armchairempire.com/images/previews/ps2/ the-sims/the-sims-5.jpg 23 Tamagotchi - virtual pets Image source www.bandai.co.jp/.../e_corporate/ ecorp705.html 24 Kurzweils Ramona chatbot Raymond Kurzweil's chatterbot Ramona acts as the avatar hostess of his website www.kurzweilAI.net and is also a virtual performer and singer.
http//www.kurzweilAI.net - click on Ramona 25 Robots and AIs in Sci-Fi 26 Capek - R.U.R.(Rossums Universal Robots) Image from a performance of R.U.R. in the 1930s 27 Maria - the robot from Fritz Langs Metropolis (1936) 28 Robby the Robot Forbidden Planet (1956) Image Source http//www.100megsfree3.com/glaw/rob by/robby9.jpg 29 Data (Star Trek The Next Generation) http//www.final-space.de/Die20Crew20der20Enter prise.htm 30 The Borg(Star Trek The Next Generation) 31 Pris in Bladerunner (19820 32 Bicentennial Man (1999) Image source http//www.norcalmovies.com/Bicenten nialMan/bicentennial04.jpg 33 Agent Smith in The Matrix (1999) 34 Stanley Kubricks A.I. (2001) David, a surrogate child, and Gigolo Joe a sex robot Image source http//www.imdb.com 35 Recurring Issues in Sci-Fi
The human identity crisis - what does it mean to be human?
What separates humans from intelligent machines?
What is special or unique about humans?
36 Recurring Issues in Sci-Fi
Will AIs will supercede and dominate humans?
If AI intelligence equals or exceeds our own, will they compete for resources with us will they try to subjugate or destroy humans, rendering the human race obsolete?
Will AIs abide by Asimovs Three Laws of Robotics?
37 Asimovs 3 laws of robotics
A robot may not harm a human being, or, through inaction, allow a human being to come to harm.
A robot must obey the orders given to it by the human beings, except where such orders would conflict with the First Law.
A robot must protect its own existence, as long as such protection does not conflict the First or Second Law.
38 Ethical dilemmas in AI
Will intelligent machines develop self-awareness or consciousness?
i.e.will they develop the subjective capacity to experience the world, and the sense of personhood, that characterises humans?
Will they develop emotion?
NB In Blade Runner, they use an emotion test rather than an intelligence test to detect replicants (robots)
39 Ethical dilemmas in AI
If AI technologies develop consciousness and emotions, should they have rights, in the sense that humans have rights?
Are we creating a slave race?
Do we have an ethical responsibility to new lifeforms and AIs? (Mary Shelleys Frankenstein story explored this issue)
Should there be a bill of rights for AIs?
Will we be able to turn them off or will this be tantamount to murder?
In ARIN 1000 Reader
Lubar, S. (1993)Information Beyond Computers, in Infoculture, New York Houghton Mifflin.
Cleland, K. (2003) "Domestic Robots", in, MESH 16 The House of Tomorrow, Melbourne Experimenta -Available www.experimenta.org/mesh.html