Primary reliance on hard sources such as petrochemicals
Promotion of continued economic growth and rising material standards
Emphasis on developing technologies
Highly centralized production dominated by huge corporations
2 The Soft Path
Reduction in total energy consumption.
Development of intermediate and appropriate technologies.
Creation of a permanently sustainable economy.
Development of alternatives solar wind geothermal hydrogen.
3 Mining efficiency
It is cheaper to save energy than to buy itAmory Lovins
Adoption of new household appliance efficiency standards would eliminate the need for new power plants
More stringent residential and commercial air conditioner efficiency standards approved by the Clinton Administration do away with the need for another 93 power plants
4 Mining efficiency
Improving energy efficiency of new and existing buildings (more efficient lighting) would save 380 power plants
Compact fluorescent bulbs use ¼ electricity of regular bulbs and last 13 times as long.
CF 3-year cost 19.06
Regular bulb 39.54
Greater Fuel efficiency
5 Seeking Alternative Sources
There are many advantages to fossil fuels due to large investment in the production we currently have. (75 of energy is oil gas coal)
Little is currently invested in alternative energy.
6 Energy Efficiency Renewable Energy Resources
84 of all commercial energy in US is wasted (2nd Law of Thermodynamics)
7 The Hydrogen Revolution
Water electrolysis splitting H2O molecules. NOT an energy source more of a fuel.
Clean-burning fuel water vapor (locally)
But it takes a lot of energy to produce hydrogen (costly) but where does the energy come from
On the other hand costs are coming down. Fuel cell cars on market (2003). However there is little infrastructure.
Prior to the widespread availability of
commercial electric power hydropower was
used for irrigation and operation of various
machines such as watermills textile
machines and sawmills.
Hydropower is non-polluting It is renewable - water flows are replenished by the hydrologic cycle which is powered by the sun.
Hydroelectric power now supplies about 19 of world electricity (16 in 2003). Large dams are still being designed. Apart from a few countries with an abundance of it hydro power is normally applied to peak load demand because it is readily stopped and started.
Most of the Pacific West in the U.S. is powered by hydroelectric power.
9 Some issues
Hydroelectric power is probably not a major option for future energy production most major sites are either already being exploited or are unavailable for other reasons such as environmental considerations.
Building dams can involve diverting rivers flooding farmland and countryside and displacing local people (i.e.. China)
Wildlife habitats are disrupted and the natural flow of water is altered. Forests are often cut down to build the accompanying infrastructure.
Dams can trap silt which would otherwise enrich soils downstream creating sediment and pollution problem up and down stream.
10 Wind Energy
Wind energy is
Mitigates the greenhouse effect if it is used to replace fossil-fuel-derived electricity.
Unlike fossil fuel or nuclear power stations which circulate or evaporate large amounts of water for cooling wind turbines do not need water to generate electricity.
. 11 Wind Energy
2000-2006 world wind energy generating capacity more than quadruples.
accounts for 23 of electricity use in Denmark
4.3 in Germany
around 8 in Spain.
Only 1 globally.
Less than 1 in US
World Wind Energy Generating Capacity 19802002
13 (No Transcript) 14 Wind Energy
Denmark manufactured 60 of all turbines installed in 2000
Cost has dropped from 38/kwh cents in 1980 to 4 cents in 2001
US Great Plains have enough wind to meet all national electricity needs Saudia Arabia of wind
One large wind turbine on ¼ acre can yield a farmer or rancher 2000/year in royalties while generating 100000/year in electricity.
15 (No Transcript) 16 Long Term Potential of Wind Energy
Winds long-term theoretical potential is much greater than current world energy consumption.
The most comprehensive study to date found the potential of wind power on land and near-shore to be five times the worlds current energy use and 40 times the current electricity use.
17 Any Tradeoffs Downsides
Aesthetics. Some people think they are ugly. Fight over offshore windmills near Marthas Vineyard.
Studies show number of birds killed by wind turbines is negligible compared to the amount that die as a result of other human activities such as traffic hunting power lines and high rise buildings but especially the environmental impacts of using fossil fuels.
Transferability of wind generated power
18 From Petroleum to Solar
When BP merged with Amoco it also acquired Solarex the solar cell arm of Amoco making BP the worlds third ranking manufacturer of solar cells after Sharp and Kyocera of Japan. Siemens/Shell in fourth place (No US firms in top 4).
19 Solar Energy
Sunlight strikes silicon-based material electricity-photovoltaic cells
Growth of sales of photovoltaic cells 20 a year in 1999-2000 jumping to 43 in 2000
Cost of solar cells fallen from 70/watt of production capacity to 3.50/watt since 1970s
20 Your House as an Energy Source
Development of photovoltaic cells that are also roof shingles. The roof of a building becomes the power plant.
In Germany and Japan solar-shingled houses have two-way meters-selling electricity to the local utility when the house has an excess-buying it when it doesnt have enough.
21 Set-backs to Solar
Local ordinances (e.i. Coral Gables)
Cost remains high and little subsidies are available
Require large amount of space to harness energy
Better for localized efforts
22 Reducing Energy Use
Encouragement of these activities in the U.S. has not succeeded enough to make big difference
Economic incentives for energy conservation
Tax relief for those who conserve
Penalties for those who overuse
Cost-Savings through more efficient use.
23 How quickly will we make the transition
World energy consumption will continue to grow projected 50 increase by 2020 under one scenario.
massive drive to raise energy efficiency scenario.
Even given clear and widespread public policy support the new renewables...will take decades to develop and diffuse to the point where they significantly substitute fossil fuels.
Shell Oil study group on the other hand says alternative sources competitive with fossil fuel by 2020with current trends.
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