Compare and contrast the role of Islam in the three Muslim empires
2 Ottoman Empire
Ottoman ruling elites were Sunnis
Islamic law and customs applied to all Muslims in the empire
The government tolerated religious diversity so long as they remained loyal to the empire
Non-Muslims formed a significant minority within the empire. They were required to pay a head tax (because of their exemption from the military).
3 Ottoman Empire Cont.
Each religious group organized into administrative unit called a millet
Each group had own patriarch or grand rabbi who was intermediary with the government
Each millet established own system of justice educational policies and welfare
Used Shiite faith as a unifying force
Shah acquired divine quality and claimed to be spiritual leader of all Islam
Shiism was the official state religion
Sufi mystical religious groups through out the area
Wore distinctive red caps that symbolized allegiance to the twelve imams of the Shii faith they were known as the red heads.
They combined Muslim with Hindu and Persian concepts of religion and cultural values
Akbar (ruler of the Mughals) who was an Othodox Muslim had been exposed to other religions therefore he accepted religious diversity among his people
Became steadily more hostile towards Muslims in later years
Sponsored a new form of worship called the Divine Faith which combined characteristics of several religions with a central belief in the infallibility of all decisions reached by the emperor
6 Compare and Contrast
All the empires were Muslim in their religious affiliation
The Safavids were Shiites rather than Sunnis
The Ottomans and the Mughals were more tolerant of other religions while the Safavids were more strict about their faith
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