Is it the Cause of So Few Women in Management and Leadership Positions
Richard G. Dudley 25th Meeting of the International System Dynamics Society Boston - July 2007 2 A Pipeline Issue (some quotes)
the assumption usually unfounded that there isnt enough talent in the pipeline.
qualified women in substantial numbers have been available for the academic pipeline for 20 years.
For decades the pat explanation was that women simply had not been in the work force long enough... A look at the pipeline suggests otherwise.
This dearth of women leaders both academic and administrative is no longer a pipeline issue.
3 A Simple Question
Given that women make up 45 of the US workforce but only 16 of corporate officers and only 2 of CEOs.
Can pipeline delays alone account for this relatively low fraction of CEO and leadership positions held by women
In other words are the numbers of women in these positions what we would expect given historical trends of women in the overall workforce and in college
4 The Approach Taken
Supply Chain (subscripted by gender)
Starting with last year in high school
Three levels of university education
Six career categories
Adjust input data so that (for 1940 2005)
Proportion of female and male university students matches real world information.
Proportions of men and women in the total workforce match real world information.
fraction of male and female workers in Senior and Leadership Positions
under different scenarios.
5 Model Structure 1 Education 6 Model Structure 2 Early Workforce moving up 7 Model Structure 3 Higher Positions 8 Model Structure 3 Higher Positions
9 Some Background 1 Historical Trend - Workforce Composition 0.9 Approximate Composition of the Workforce by Gender 0.8 Men - accounting for womens part-time participation in the workforce 0.7 men 0.6 0.5 fraction of the workforce 0.4 women 0.3 Women - accounting for part-time participation in the workforce 0.2 But! A consistent fraction of women work part-time. So! To give the supply chain hypothesis a better chance I will use these lower values for womens participation in the workforce! 0.1 0 1950 1975 1998 2005 Year 10 Some Background 2 Historical Trend Fraction with College Degree Fraction of US Population Graduating from College 0.4 0.35 0.3 0.25 fraction 0.2 0.15 0.1 0.05 0 1930 1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 Year of Graduation 11 0.5 Fraction of Each Work Category Who are Female 0.45 What we would expect to find if movement through the workforce is the same for men and women and differences are due solely to differences in numbers available for promotion. 0.4 fraction of workforce all basic careers 0.35 early careers 0.3 Dmnl 0.25 Expected fraction of senior management positions held by women Actual 0.2 established career path 0.15 senior workforce leaders 0.1 1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 Time (Year) 12 (No Transcript) 13 An Adjustment
Suppose we assume that the number of women becoming homemakers tags all women in basic careers as less suitable for promotion.
That is Movement out of both basic careers is limited by the perception that women are homemakers.
14 Women are tagged as homemakers and tend to get stuck in basic careers Original Promotions Not Biased 15 An Additional Adjustment
Lets also assume that the fraction of women becoming homemakers tags all women at ALL career levels as less suitable for promotion.
That is Movement upward from ANY career category is limited by the perception that women are homemakers.
Based on the fraction that actually become homemakers.
16 Women are tagged as homemakers at the basic career level 17 Women are tagged as homemakers at ALL career levels fraction of workforce all basic careers early careers established career path senior workforce leaders 18 Conclusions Comments
Supply chain delays alone cannot account for the relatively low numbers of women in senior workforce positions in the US.
One alternate idea that womens movement throughout the employment chain is limited because they are tagged as homemakers could explain the low numbers.
But several other explanations could also explain the bias.
19 Comments (continued)
Also if there are sufficient numbers of women in the supply chain then such things as special programs for women at universities are probably less important than are.
Improvements in equity during promotion along the chain of workforce categories.
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