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Title: Forensic%20Anthropology%20


1
Forensic Anthropology mostly bones
2
Why Forensic Anthropology ?
  • Forensic pathologists are trained to analyze soft
    tissue and organs. Their experience with hard
    tissue (bone) is limited.
  • The forensic anthropologist specializes in hard
    tissue morphology, structure and variability. In
    those cases in which soft tissue has been
    degraded by time, temperature, environment or
    other external forces, the only tissue remaining
    more or less intact is bone.
  • Physical Anthropologists and Archeologists study
    human remains and have become part of solving
    crimes.


3
Bones have been used for centuries for decoration
4
What Questions Can Forensic Anthropology Answer?
  • What is the race of the individual?
  • What is the sex of the individual?
  • What is the age of the individual?
  • What is the stature of the individual?
  • What pathologies did the individual have?
  • What traumas did the individual have?
  • What individual traits did the individual have?

5
Identity of Decomposed or Skeletal Remains
  • Are the remains human or animal? (butchers
    remains and skeletal remains of dead pets etc.
    may be found in unlikely places)
  • Are they really bones? (wood, stones)
  • Are they human?
  • How many bodies?
  • How long dead? recent or ancient (e.g.
    construction or digging at an old burial site)
  • Cause of death?

6
How does this Work?
  • Forensic anthropologists use regression equations
    to determine sex, age, stature, and race of
    skeletal remains.
  • Regression equations are mathematical equations
    developed from studies of bones of individuals of
    known sex, age, race, and stature, and are used
    to predict such things of even fragmentary
    skeletal remains."

7
Bones can tell us
  • Age
  • Sex
  • Height
  • Racial origin
  • Condition of life
  • Profession
  • Number of children
  • Diet nutrition
  • Injuries
  • Diseases
  • Cause of death

8
By the author of The Bible
9
Excerpts from the book
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What can be learned
12
Bones were designed for support locomotion
13
In general, the muscles in a man are stronger and
more developed than in a woman.
  • Bones of men are larger and more robust than
    bones of women
  • A lot of this has to do with male hormones
    developing larger muscles
  • Remember bones grow with use!!!!
  • STRUCTURE FUNCTION

14
The best indicators of gender
  • Some bones display specific features which can be
    used to help determination of the sex of the
    skeleton. The best indicators are the
  • Skull
  • Pelvis
  • Head of the Femur

15
Sex Estimation Adult
  • Usually related to size in adult long bones
  • Male bones usually larger, longer in a single
    population be cautious if different populations
    are involved
  • Maximum diameter of head of humerus and head of
    femur may be used.
  • Much more difficult to estimate sex in childrens
    skeletons.

16
Sex Estimation Skull
  • Good area for sex determination
  • Generalization male skull more robust, muscle
  • marked than female
  • Sex estimation face, mandible, vault

17
Sex Estimation Face
  • 1. Supraorbital (Brow) ridges more prominent in
    males
  • 2. Superior orbital margin sharper in females
  • 3. Palate larger in males
  • 4. Teeth larger in males (Bass)
  • 5. Mastoid process more prominent and rugged in
    males.
  • 6. Orbit (Eye socket) Rounder in females, more
    rectangular in males
  • 7. Chin more pronounced in males and larger
    jaws.
  • 8. Sloping forehead in males higher, rounded in
    females

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Skull differences
21
Angle of the Jaw
22
Male Female Skulls
23
Pubis Bone Traits Related to Sex
24
Sex of the individual
25
Pelvis Women give birth.
  • For this reason, the pelvis of a woman is larger
    than the pelvis of a man.
  • The pelvis of a woman is wide and circular
    whereas the pelvis of a man is narrow and heart
    shaped.
  • Two angles, the subpubic angle and the sciatic
    notch, cause the differences in the shape of the
    pelvis.
  • In women, the subpubic angle and sciatic notch
    are wide. In men, the subpubic angle and sciatic
    notch
  • are narrow.

26
Sacral clues to sex
27
Head of the Femur
  • In men, the diameter of the head of the femur is
    larger than 51 mm.
  • In women, the diameter of the head of the femur
    is less than 45 mm.

28
Determining Ages of Skeletons
  • Bone growth stops at about 20 yrs. of age in
    humans.
  • Adult bone continuously adapts to prevailing
    stresses by appropriate deposition and
    resorption.
  • Deposition and resorption are under hormonal
    control integrated with regulation of blood
    calcium levels.

29
Skeletal Age
  • Skeletal age is the estimated age at which a
    person died. Skeletal age can be determined by
    looking at the following
  • sutures of the skull
  • teeth
  • ribs
  • vertebrae
  • growth areas of the long bones epiphyses

30
Sutures of the Skull
  • When a baby is born, the skull is still growing.
  • To accommodate this growth, the different bones
    of the skull are separate.
  • By the age of 7, all the different bones have
    finished growing and the fontanelles have
    disappeared.

31
The Teeth
  • The teeth are arranged in upper and lower arches.
  • upper are called maxillary
  • the lower are mandibular.
  • Enamel.
  • The protective outer surface of the anatomic
    crown.
  • is 96 mineral
  • is the hardest tissue in the body.

32
There are four types of teeth with very different
shapes
  • Incisors (2)
  • Canines (1)
  • Premolars (bicuspids) (2)
  • Molars (2-3)
  • Individual teeth are quite distinct, even when
    lost from a jaw.

33
Teeth
  • The first teeth to appear are the incisors, which
    are followed by canines and molars.
  • When chewing food, teeth grind down.
  • Comparing different teeth gives an idea of how
    long the teeth have been used.
  • Eventually teeth may be lost, due to caries or
    attrition.

34
X-Rays Are Used to Date Skulls
  • This is the side view of the dentition of a six
    year old boy.
  • There is still some variation from person to
    person in the order in which the teeth erupt.

35
  • Baby Teeth Permanent Teeth
  • Incisors 7-12 months Incisors 6.5 years
  • Canines 2 years Canines 10.8 years
  • Premolar 1 none Premolar 1 10.4
    years
  • Premolar 2 none Premolar 2 11 years
  • Molar 1 3 years Molar 1 6.2 years
  • Molar 2 3 years Molar 2 12.2 years
  • Molar 3 none Molar 3 18 years

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Vertebrae
  • As a person gets older, bony spikes can also
    start growing on the vertebrae.
  • This starts at approximately 40 years of age.

38
Growth areas of the long bones (epiphysis)
  • From birth to 25 years of age, a person grows at
    a relatively constant rate.
  • Growth takes place at the ends of the long bones.
  • At a certain age, growth is completed and this
    can also be seen on the bone.

39
Epiphyseal Fusion
  • The pattern of fusion of bone ends (epiphysis) to
    bone shaft (metaphysis) in each bone indicates
    age.
  • Charts tables are used.
  • The upper arm stops growing at the shoulder at
    approximately age 20 and at the elbow at
    approximately age 14.5.
  • The upper leg stops growing at the hip at
    approximately age 17.5 and at the knee at
    approximately age 18.

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Age Determination from Skeleton
  • Long bone length (femur, tibia, humerus) is
    proportional to height.
  • Tables are used.
  • Fairly reliable up to the age of epiphyseal
    fusion.
  • There are sex, race, nutrition and personal
    variations to consider.
  • Cranial suture fusion is less reliable.
  • Pubic symphysis changes slightly with age.
  • Arthritic changes and osteoporosis give further
    clues.

42
Early Bone Development
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Dating of Human Skeletal Remains
  • Are they ancient or modern bones? (i.e. greater
    or less than 50 years).
  • Rate of skeletonization is highly variable. In
    the tropics a body can be reduced to a skeleton
    in 3 weeks.
  • Remarkable preservation of body is seen in acidic
    peaty soil
  • Thus, environmental conditions have to be taken
    into account.

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Age of Human Remains
  • Naked eye appearance is unreliable
  • Tags of soft tissue, periosteum, ligaments etc,
    indicate less than 5 years old.
  • Soapy texture of surface indicates age less than
    a few decades.
  • Light, crumbling bones are likely to be a century
    or more old.

47
Laboratory Tests Can Help
  • Immunological reaction between bone extract and
    antihuman serum ceases within months of death.
  • If blood pigments are present bones are usually
    less than 10 years old.
  • Up to 20 amino acids may be identified in bones
    less than a century old.
  • Fluorescence of freshly sawn bone surface under
    UV light diminishes after 100 years.
  • New bones contain 4.0 - 4.5 gms nitrogen 2.5
    gms indicates approximately 350 years.
  • Radioactive carbon dating indicates which century.

48
Height Determination
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Height
  • An intact corpse can be measured, but a
    disarticulated or incomplete skeleton has to be
    pieced together.
  • One rule of thumb is that height is about five
    times the length of the humerus, but there are
    formulas for height based on other major bones as
    well (spine, tibia, and femur)
  • Estimates for the femur, tibia, humerus, radius,
    ulna, calcaneus and talus can be used to generate
    a composite height estimate that is more accurate.

51
Body Type and Race or Ethnic Group Determination
  • Tables provide an estimate based on bone
    characteristics for determining whether the
    person was slender, of medium build, or heavy.
  • The skull is the only reliable bone. It is not
    possible to narrow down the identification to
    race
  • Caucasian (all whites)
  • Negroid (all blacks African, African Americans
    and West Indians)
  • Mongoloid (Chinese, Japanese, American Indians)

52
Ethnic Origins
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In Caucasians
  • Nasal openings
  • are narrow.
  • Face is flatter

55
In Mongoloids
  • Shovel-shaped concave upper incisor teeth.
  • Cheekbones (Zygomatic arches) are wider and more
    prominent.
  • Greater width between eyes.

56
In Negroids
  • Face projects forward
  • Nasal opening is wider

57
Comparison Of Skulls
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Diseases PALEOPATHOLOGY
  • CONGENTIAL DEFECTS
  • INFECTIONS
  • TOXINS
  • TRAUMA
  • DIET / METABOLIC disorders
  • ENDOCRINE DISORDERS
  • NEOPLASMS
  • BIOMECHANICS (plasticity)

62
Specific Diseases
  • Osteomyelitis (inflammation of marrow) usu. due
    to bacteria or fungi mostly affects long bones
    begins within marrow or introduced from outside
    via trauma
  • Tuberculosis (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)affects
    vertebrae limbs, necrosis (death) ofbone,
    cartilage and other soft tissue
  • Syphilis (Treponema pallidum) congenital or
    spread by sexual contact skull appears
  • worm-eaten also tibia (saber shin)

63
DIET / METABOLIC disorders
  • Rickets (Vit-D deficiency)
  • Osteoporosis (low done density)
  • Acute Anemia (low iron, RBCs)

64
Determining Identity Cause of Death
65
Cause of Death
  • Anthropologists can distinguish between marks
    from the result of a weapon attack and those
    resulting from the gnawing and biting of bones by
    scavenging animals.
  • They can also determine the exact kind of weapon
    and animal, and they can tell if a wound is old
    or if it occurred at death.
  • They can be called upon to testify as to the type
    of weapon used (saw vs. knife).

66
Cut Marks
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Facial Reconstruction
69
  • Pearl was a female who died in her early forties
    approximately three hundred years ago.
  • She was Caucasian, of European ancestry and
    stood about5'1".
  • Her dental health was extremely poor and she had
    lost 63 percent of her teeth prior to death. She
    had no teeth on either side of her jaw. This was
    most important as the loss of those teeth would
    evidence themselves in the final reconstruction
    as sunken cheeks. Of her remaining teeth, the
    condition was poor and she had several abscesses.
  • During her lifetime, there are indicators that
    she also suffered from acute infections, rickets,
    sinusitis, an upper respiratory infection,
    arthritis, and gout.
  • Whew!! all this in an era when aspirin didn't
    exist!
  • On the other hand, it was determined that she was
    very muscular, as the ridges on her long bones
    were very developed.

70
The Bible on Bone Identification
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