Title: Environmental Degradation Energy Utilization
1 Environmental DegradationEnergy Utilization
Klaus S. Lackner
New York NY
2 Energy Sources
Solar heat and photovoltaic
Fossil carbon coal oil gas tar shale
3 Energy Uses
cooking metallurgy chemical products fertilizers to plastics
Transportation manufacturing agriculture
4 Total Energy Fossil Energy Non Fossil Energy 5 Energy consumption and wealth 10 billion people trying to consume energy as US citizens do today would raise world energy demand 10 fold 6 Pollution Issues 7 Pollution Issues II 8 Fossil Energy Is Vital to the World Economy 9 Fossil Carbon Accumulates in the Air CO2 increase in the atmosphere accounts for 58 of all fossil CO2 emissions Changes in the industrial age are large on a geological scale Anthropogenic increase of carbon dioxide is well documented for this century. 10 50000 Gt Oil Gas Tars Shales Carbon Sources and Sinks
Coal Methane Hydrates 21st Centurys Emissions Scales of Potential Carbon Sinks Soil Detritus Ocean Atmo-sphere Plants pH 2000 1800 constant 39000 Gt Carbon Resources 11 50 increase in biomass 180ppm increase in the air 30 of the Ocean acidified 30 increase in Soil Carbon 12 10 - 30 TeraWatt 2050 of Carbon Neutral Primary Energy 13 Net Zero Carbon Economy CO2 extraction from air CO2 from concentrated sources Electricity Hydrogen Biological Chemical Permanent safe disposal Underground Chemical Storage 14 Hydrogen economy cannot run on electricity
There are no hydrogen wells
Tar coal shale and biomass could support a hydrogen economy. Wind photovoltaics and nuclear energy cannot. 15 Energy States of Carbon The ground state of carbon is a mineral carbonate Carbon 400 kJ/mole Carbon Dioxide 60...180 kJ/mole Carbonate 16 Net Carbonation Reaction for Serpentine Mg3Si2O5(OH)4 3CO2(g) 3MgCO3 2SiO2 2H2O(l) heat/mol CO2 -63.6 kJ Accelerated from 100000 years to 30 minutes 17 Magnesium resources that far exceed world fossil fuel supplies 18 Rockville Quarry 19 Mineral Disposal of CO2 1 GW Electricity Coal Strip Mine Zero Emission Coal Power Plant 70 Efficiency Coal CO2 4.3 kt/day Mineral Carbonation Plant Earth Moving 40 kt/day 11 ktons/day 28 kt/day 36 MgO Heat Open Pit Serpentine Mine Sand Magnesite 1.4 kt/day Fe 0.2 kt/day Ni Cr Mn 35 kt/day Mining crushing grinding 7/t CO2 Processing 10/t CO2 No credit for byproducts 20
CO2 N2 H2O SOx NOx and other Pollutants
Zero Emission Principle Air Need better sources of oxygen Power Plant Carbon Solid/Liquid Waste 21 ADVANCED ZERO EMISSION PLANT CONCEPTS 22 How much wind (6m/sec) Wind area that carries 10 kW 0.2 m 2 for CO2 80 m 2 for Wind Energy Wind area that carries 22 tons of CO2 per year 23 Air CO2 Volumes are drawn to scale 24 Extraction from Air Power Equivalent from gasoline v 6 m/s 60000 W/m2 Areas are drawn to scale 25 60m by 50m 3kg of CO2 per second 90000 tons per year 4000 people or 15000 cars Would feed EOR for 800 barrels a day. 250000 units for worldwide CO2 emissions 26 (No Transcript) 27 (No Transcript) 28 Materially Closed Energy Cycles O2 O2 Energy Source Energy Consumer H2O H2O 29 Ca(OH)2 as an absorbent Flux D/L D 1.3910-5m2/s diffusion coefficient L is boundary thickness is density of CO2 Ca(OH)2 solution CaCO3 precipitate CO2 mass transfer is limited by diffusion in air boundary layer 30 Public Institutions and Government guidance Carbon Board certification Permits Credits Certified Carbon Accounting certificates 31 Sustainable Development
1 2 billion without any electricity
32 The Fossil Carbon Pie 600 Gt C Soon Past Distant Future 33 The Fossil Carbon Pie Past Soon 5000 Gt C Distant Future With Carbon Sequestration
PowerShow.com is a leading presentation/slideshow sharing website. Whether your application is business, how-to, education, medicine, school, church, sales, marketing, online training or just for fun, PowerShow.com is a great resource. And, best of all, most of its cool features are free and easy to use.
You can use PowerShow.com to find and download example online PowerPoint ppt presentations on just about any topic you can imagine so you can learn how to improve your own slides and presentations for free. Or use it to find and download high-quality how-to PowerPoint ppt presentations with illustrated or animated slides that will teach you how to do something new, also for free. Or use it to upload your own PowerPoint slides so you can share them with your teachers, class, students, bosses, employees, customers, potential investors or the world. Or use it to create really cool photo slideshows - with 2D and 3D transitions, animation, and your choice of music - that you can share with your Facebook friends or Google+ circles. That's all free as well!
For a small fee you can get the industry's best online privacy or publicly promote your presentations and slide shows with top rankings. But aside from that it's free. We'll even convert your presentations and slide shows into the universal Flash format with all their original multimedia glory, including animation, 2D and 3D transition effects, embedded music or other audio, or even video embedded in slides. All for free. Most of the presentations and slideshows on PowerShow.com are free to view, many are even free to download. (You can choose whether to allow people to download your original PowerPoint presentations and photo slideshows for a fee or free or not at all.) Check out PowerShow.com today - for FREE. There is truly something for everyone!