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Attitudes%20as%20syndromes

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Title: Attitudes%20as%20syndromes


1
Attitudes as syndromes
  • Lecture 9

2
Attitudes as syndromes
  • Attitudes form a structure attitudes are not
    independent of each other
  • Attitudes can be predicted from other attitudes
  • The most frequently studied attitudinal syndroms
    authoritarianism, dogmatism, conservatism vs.
    liberalism, tough vs tender-mindedness
  • How are content and formal properties of
    attitudes related?

3
Authoritarian personality (1950)
Theodor Adorno Else Frenkel-Brunswik
1903-1969
1908-1958
4
Authoritarian personality
  • Theodor Adorno, E. Frenkel Brunswik, D. Levinson,
    R. Sanford (1950) Authoritarian personality
  • Dollard-Miller agression as a consequence of
    frustration
  • Increase in ethnic prejudice in conditions of
    economic deprivation
  • Number of lynchings on Blacks and price of cotton
    in the South
  • Theodor Adornopsychoanalytic theory of a
    scape-goat

5
Frustration agression hypothesis
6
History of research on authoritarianism
  • Holocaust
  • Observation of prejudice against Jews in America
  • Attitude scales
  • Antisemitism Scale (AS)
  • Ethnocentrism Scale (E)
  • Fascism scale (F)

7
Authoritarian Personality Syndrome (1)
  • Conventionalism rigid adherence to conventional.
    Middle-class values
  • Authoritarian submission submissive, uncritical
    attitude towards idealized moral authorities of
    the ingroup
  • Authoritarian aggression tendency to be on the
    lookout for, to condemn, reject, and punish
    people who violate conventional values
  • Anti-intraception Opposition to the subjective,
    the imaginative, the tender-minded
  • Superstition and stereotypy The belief in the
    mystical determinants of the individuals fate,
    the disposition to think in rigid categories

8
Authoritarian Personality Syndrome (2)
  • Power and toughness Preoccupation with the
    dominance-submission, strong-weak,
    leader-follower dimension identification with
    the power figures exaggerated assertion of
    strength and toughness
  • Destructiveness and cynism Generalized
    hostility, vilification of the human
  • Projectivity The disposition to believe that
    wild and dangerous things go on the world the
    projection of unconscious emotional impulses
  • Sexual repression Exaggerated concern with
    sexual goings on

9
F scale (selected items)
  • Obedience and respect for authority are the most
    important virtues children should learn
  • If people would talk less and work more,
    everybody would be better off
  • What that country needs most, more than laws and
    political programs, is a few courageous,
    tireless, devoted leaders in whom the people can
    put their faith
  • Homosexuals are hardly better than criminals and
    ought to be severly punished
  • War and social troubles may sometimes be ended by
    an earthquake or flood that will destroy the
    whole world
  • The wild sex life of the old Greeks and Romans
    was tame compared to some of the goings-on in
    this country, even in places where people might
    least expect it

10
Authoritarian syndrome (Theodor Adorno)
Values of lower middle class
Authoritarian upbrining
repression
Identification with The aggressor
Authoritarian aggression
Authoritarian submission
antyintrojection
projection
Choice of scape goat minority group
11
The scape-goat theory of prejudice
  • Psychoanalytic explanations (prejudice as
    defensive mechanism)
  • Clinical diagnostic tools (among others
    projective tests, interviews)
  • Mechanisms of stereotypes in personality
  • Other representatives of Frankfurt school H.
    Marcuse, E. Fromm

12
Criticism of the authoritarian personality
concept
  • One-way questions (all affirmative)
  • Primitive formulations of items higher
    proportion of yes responses among low educated
    people
  • The same items diagnostic of several traits
  • right-wing ideology, what about left-wing
    authoritarianism?
  • Mechanisms of stereotyping and prejudice
    personality and not social
  • Psychoanalytic, clinical concept

13
Dogmatic personality
Open and Closed Mind (1960)
Milton Rokeach (1918-1988)
14
Dogmatic personality Milton Rokeach Open and
Closed Mind (1960)
  • Cognitive, not psychoanalytic approach
  • Dogmatic beliefs independent of content
    (right-wing and left-wing dogmatism)
  • Formal features of the belief system determine
    its open or closed nature
  • Two functions of beliefs cognitive and defensive
  • Dogmatism prevalence of the defensive over
    cognitive function

15
Open vs. Closed mind description
  • Belief vs. Disbelief system
  • Open vs. Closed mind
  • Amount of information about targets of beliefs
    and disbeliefs The more is known about accepted
    objects and the less about unaccepted objects
    the more dogmatic system
  • Homogeneity of the disbelief system The more
    homogeneous, the more dogmatic system
  • Perceived distance between the belief and the
    disbelief system The greater distance, the more
    dogmatic system

16
Closed mind
Beliefs
Disbeliefs
Amount information
B
A
C
Differentiation
D
E
F
Perceived distance
Number opinions
17
Open mind
Beliefs
Disbeliefs
Amount information
A
B
C
Differentiation
E
D
F
G
Perceived distance
Number opinions
18
Rokeach Sherif
High ego-involvement
Low ego-involvement
Number of opinions
Latitude of acceptance
Latitude of noncommitment
Latitude of rejectance
19
Other features of the closed mind
  • Change of attitude in line with the conversion
    model (180 degrees)
  • Closed mind focus on a narrow time perspective
    (only past, only present, only future)
  • Underlying mechanism anxiety

20
Closed mind and the as if atttitude
  • Kurt Goldstein concrete vs. abstract attitude
  • abstract attitude ability to think in terms
    of the as if categories
  • concrete attitude literal understanding,
    immersion in the concrete and palpable
  • Understanding metaphors and abstract attitude
  • Dogmatism deficit of the abstract attitude

21
Authoritarian vs. dogmatic
dogmatic
authoritarian
22
Bob Altemeyer
  • The Authoritarian Specter
  • The Authoritarians (2006)

23
Bob Altemayer Right Wing Authoritarianism (1996)
  • New authoritarianism scale 3 elements of
    syndrome
  • Conservatism
  • Authoritarian agression
  • Authoritarian submission
  • Left wing authoritarianism is it possible?

24
Right-wing authoritarianism (Bob Altenmayer)
Values of lower middle class
Authoritarian upbrining
repression
Identification with The aggressor
Authoritarian aggression
Authoritarian submission
antyintrojection
projection
Choice of scape goat minority group
25
RWA scale Right Wing Authoritarianism Scale
(selected items)
  • Life imprisonment is justified for certain crimes
  • It is important to protect the rights of radicals
    and deviants in all ways
  • Gays and lesbians are as healthy and moral as
    everybody else
  • Our country will be destroyed someday if we do
    not smash the perversions eating away at out
    moral fiber and traditional beliefs
  • The real keys to the good life are obedience,
    discipline, and sticking to the straight and
    narrow
  • There is absolutely nothing wrong with the nudist
    camps

26
Right or left-wing authoritarianism
  • ?

27
Social Dominance Orientantion Theory (1999)
  • Individual tendency to accept social hierarchy,
    to legitimize hierarchical social order
  • Both RWA and SDO positive correlations with
    prejudice

James Sidanius
Felicia Pratto
28
RWA vs. SDO or dual model of prejudice
  • RWA i SDO two motivational schemas
  • RWA motivation for control and group security
    focus on intragroup norms
  • SDO motywacja for competion and dominance
    focus on intergroup comparisons
  • Patriotism vs. nationalism
  • RWA patriotic attitudes (affective attitude
    towards country)
  • SDO nationalistic attitudes (superioroty of own
    country)

29
Silvan S. Tomkins
1911-1991
Theory of ideological polarity
30
Silvan Tomkins Theory of ideological polarity
  • Basic distinction relation between values and an
    individual
  • Right (normative orientation)
  • Values autonomous and realistic status
  • Humans instrumental with respect to values
  • Left (humanistic orientation)
  • Values relative and created by humans
  • Individual autonomous value
  • Reality objective or created?

31
Theory of ideological polarity
  • Objective - subjective
  • Children upbringing
  • Role of the state/government
  • Science and epistemology
  • realism vs. constructvism
  • Context of discovery vs context of justification
  • Attitude towards punishment
  • General life attitudes

32
H.J. Eysenck Beyond right and left
  • Fascism and communism two opposing points on
    one dimension?
  • Similarities between extreme left and right
  • Need for second dimension
  • Radicalism-conservatism
  • Tough-mindedness vs. Tender-mindedness

33
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34
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