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Little theatre or culture

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... poets - Shakespeare, Spencer, Milton. Competing playwright - Ben ... 3 Children - Susanna (6 months after wedding) Twins Hamnet and Judith in 1585. Disappeared ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Little theatre or culture


1
The Middle Ages 500 -- 1500
  • Little theatre or culture
  • First half was called Dark Ages
  • Life expectancy was 30 - 35 - less for women
  • Catholic Church shut down drama from 6th until
    10th century.
  • Church reinstated drama by incorporating dramatic
    activities in worship (most of the audience could
    not read, so Bible stories were acted out).

2
Corpus Christi Plays
  • Also known as Mystery plays (because they were
    acted by trade/mystery guilds).
  • Each guild would act out different scenes from
    the Bible on moving wagons.
  • Eventually suppressed by Protestant authorities
  • Shakespeare did see some in his youth

3
Morality Plays
  • Survived into Shakespeares time and had a bigger
    impact on his writing
  • Taught morality through allegory (characters and
    events are symbols representing truth about human
    life - contemplation, free will, imagination)

4
Public Theatre Prior to the Shake
  • No public theatre
  • Traveling troupes of actors would act wherever
    they could
  • First public theatre built by James Burbage in
    1576
  • The Theatre

5
Shakespeares Time
  • Elizabethan Era
  • Queen Elizabeth was on the English throne - 1558
    - 1603

6
London
  • Largest city in Europe
  • 190,000 - 200,000
  • Cultural center of England

7
Religion
  • Time of unrest in Religion
  • The church had power, but not as total as it had
    had in the past
  • Elizabeth was Protestant, therefore England was
    Protestant
  • Shakespeare presents wide range of views -- his
    position is unclear

8
Politics
  • Absolutism
  • She never married to protect her power -- called
    the Virgin Queen

9
The Renaissance
  • 1485 -1649
  • Encompasses Elizabeths era
  • Later in England than in France
  • Rebirth of classical interest in drama, the arts,
    and the potential of humankind

10
Theatre Duplicated the Ancient Greek
Neoclassical Rules
  • However, Greek theatre would not combine tragedy
    with comedy, would not to permit violence on
    stage, and there could be only one plot.

11
Major English poets - Shakespeare, Spencer, Milton
  • Competing playwright - Ben Jonson

12
Science -- Alchemy
  • The earth was still considered to be the centre
    of the universe.
  • Gailileo confirmed Copernicus - but not until
    1610 -- too late to affect any but the latest
    Shakespeare plays
  • Belief in witchcraft was still prevalent (even
    kings believed in power of witchcraft and magic)

13
William Shakespeare
  • Born April 23, 1564
  • Stratford-upon-Avon
  • Died April 23, 1616

14
Grave
  • Shakespeares grave reads
    Good friend, for Jesus sake forbear To
    dig the dust enclosed here Blessed be
    the man that spares these stones And cursed be
    he that moves my bones.

15
Parents
  • John Shakespeare and Mary Arden
  • Father was a prominent citizen gentleman

16
School
  • Attended Free - school one of Stratfords
    most prized institutions
  • Grammer, Rhetoric, Logic, Arithmetic, Geometry,
    Astronomy, Music

17
Reading
  • Shakespeare read everything he could that was in
    print
  • French and Italian plays, legends, folk plays,
    mythology, historical chronicles and the Bible

18
Marriage -- Anne Hathaway
  • He was 18 - she was 8 years his senior
  • 3 Children - Susanna (6 months after wedding)
    Twins Hamnet and Judith in 1585

19
Disappeared
  • From 1585 -- 1592 we have no record of
    Shakespeare.

20
The Shakes Theatre
  • The rowdy nature of the audience has been
    overdone.
  • No females actors -- Young boys played female
    roles.
  • No scenery. Language creates setting and
    introduces characters.

21
Playwrights Turned Away From Religious Topics
  • Burbagess Theatre modeled after bear-baiting
    pits
  • Playhouses were often closed due to religious
    persecution and the plague.

22
The Globe
  • Burbages sons dismantled their fathers
    Theatre (lease problems) and rebuilt on the
    Southbank.
  • The original lumber was used to build the famous
    Globe Theatre.
  • Has eight sides, though it is often referred to
    as circular.
  • The Pit- 1 cent for the groundlings -- Open to
    the sky 70 feet in diameter surrounded by
    galleries.

23
The Galleries
  • The galleries were for wealthy patrons -- the
    most prominent citizens sat on the side of the
    stage
  • Cost 2-12 cents
  • The Globe could hold up to 3,000

24
The Stage
  • Rectangular
    5 1/2 feet tall
    40 by 27 wider than
    deep Removable for bear
    bull baiting
  • Trap door in stage led to Hell
  • Above the curtained balcony was Heaven

25
The Effects
  • Thunder rolling a cannon ball across the floor
    of the Hut (above the stage)
  • Real cannons were used used for sound
  • Destroyed 1613 by fire from cannon during Henry
    VIII
  • Rebuilt in 1616

26
The Shakes s Troupe
  • Lord Chamberlains Men
  • 1603 -- James I (of King James Bible Fame) came
    to power and adopted the troupe
  • Renamed The Kings Men
  • Macbeth was written in honor of the Scottish
    king.
  • Macbeth also called the unmentionable

27
The Shakes s Language
  • Blank Verse - Poetry that does not rhyme, but has
    a musical tune to it. This is because it is
    written in Iambic Pentameter which is a line of
    five beats, with each beat having two syllables.
    The stress is most often on the second syllable
    of each beat.
  • Prose - Common language which does not
    necessarily have a rhythmical sound to it.
    Usually spoken in Shakespeares plays by servants
    and the lower classes.

28
Sonnet and Rhyming Couplet
  • A poem usually of 14 lines that have a particular
    rhyming scheme, and always have two lines that
    rhyme at the end. The best example in Romeo and
    Juliet are the two Chorus parts. The prologue
    having a rhyming scheme of ABABCDCDEFEFGG.
  • SOLILOQUY A speech made by an actor when he is
    alone. It reveals his thoughts and feelings to
    the audience but not to other characters.

29
ASIDE
  • Aside and actors words supposedly not heard by
    others on stage.

30
The Odd Stuff
  • Only the Bible is read more than Shakespeare
  • To this day, Shakespeare is the leading
    playwright of all time (hes the leading
    contemporary playwright)
  • He was /is such a mystery that there is still
    debate over who he is
  • Some people believe he was really Edward de Vere
    - Earl of Oxford
  • Some even think the writer was a woman

31
The First Folio
  • Published in 1623 by his theatrical colleagues
  • Outsold only by Bible
  • 1,200 printed - 230 survived
  • 29 bound

32
Shakespeare
  • Shakespeare never attempted to have his plays
    published during his lifetime and he made no
    money off their publication.
  • He was not of an age, but for all time Ben
    Jonson

33
You Speak The Shake
  • Assassin, without rhyme or reason, in pickle,
    vanished into thin air, hoodwinked, cold comfort,
    point your finger, bid me good riddance, send me
    packing, laughing -stock, the devil incarnate,
    sorry sight, eyesore, dead a door nail, heart of
    gold, full circle, budge an inch , fair play,
    foregone conclusion.
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