develop thesis statement/central theme or argument
Eg. The personal is political in the following ways.illustrated by these authors.
You cant summarize all the points of each author so you are looking for a connective route, an idea or concept that will allow you to discuss several authors, showing your understanding of their work, but without trying to say too much.
Things to remember
-use MLA style of referencing (no footnotes/endnotes just authors name and page and then a works cited)
-paragraphs should be ½ -3/4 of a page in length.
-Each paragraph should be clear, concise, and elaborate ONE of the points of your overall argument/discussion.
- strong papers thoughtfully connect paragraphs as well so that the reader is clear about how one idea connected to the next.
3 Framework of Meaning
Looking at every issue differently.
When you approach an issue from the perspectives of social justice and gender equality, many naturalized and accepted ideas are challenged.
Through the gender and social justice lens weve looked at the incredible feats of the womens movement over the last century and the way its legacy has been challenged by the many women excluded from the privileged class.
Weve looked at how feminist activists and theorists have used the tools of the state, particularly the Charter of Rights and Freedoms, Canadas own constitution, to entrench equality and social justice in the laws that define us. But weve also looked at canada from the perspective of its first nations, putting into question the current and historical commitment to freedom and democracy.
Weve looked at how such enormous and momentous political and historical changes are connected to our most intimate lives, and are imbedded in the way we understand ourselves as individuals, citizens, partners and families. Power structures begin in our homes and in our most intimate relations. Turning our attention to reproductive rights and freedoms, we are reminded again that the personal is political and that womens bodies are a battleground.
Today, we take a very common concept violence and again we see if we can better understand what violence is, how it is understood and how best to end violence in our homes and in the world.
Then well watch T.V.
5 CRIAW FactsheetCanadian Research Institute for the Advancement of Women
Violence against women is about the control and coercion of women.
6 Whose lives are most profoundly marked by overt violence?
Young women and female children
Mentally and Physically Disabled Women
Women of Minority Racial, Ethnocultural, and/or Linguistic Groups
Migrant Domestic Workers
7 Why talk about gendered violence?
What do the writers of this fact sheet suggest when the question of why not talk about violence against men, spousal violence, or just violence is asked? p. 3
What are the most effective programs for addressing male violence against women, as it is being discussed by CRIAW? p. 4
What would you include in a course designed for men who had been convicted of violence against women?
What is baffling, though, is that no matter how many headlines read Woman killed by ex-boyfriend, Wife and children abducted by husband, Student raped in library, Girl found dead, tortured, and on and on, such incidents of violence are singular unthinkable and incomprehensible tragedies every day, constantly read, vaguely digested, forgotten, until the next day. The sheer enormity of the problem of violence against women is at such a scale as to render it banal, and thus invisible. Sarah Ghabrial, Rabble.ca
9 The Problem is (at least) three-fold
1) Dominant masculinity contributes to the widespread historical incidence of MEN killing other MEN.
2) Dominant masculinity perpetuates gendercide, which means killing women because they are women.
3) A patriarchal culture leaves women less equipped, emotionally, financially and culturally, to achieve and maintain independence within male/female partnerships.
10 Why do some women stay?Is this really the question?
Fear of partner and of system!
Lack of resources
Violence is just part of life
Lack of Support
Read A cross-cultural studychildrens survival (6).
11 Why dont women always report sexual assult?
Dont recognize it as violence or sexual assult.
Fear of isolation/alienation/becoming ostracized.
Fear of retribution.
Lack of faith in justice system.
On society? Cost/Cycles of violence/Violence leads to other dysfunctions.
Immediate Consequences for Women? Death/Injury or permanent disability/Unwanted pregnancy, abortion/sexually transmitted infections/emotional trauma.
Long-term consequences for women?
Greater risk of heath problems (injury, chronic pain, gastrointestinal disorders, anxiety and clinical depression).
Over their lifetimes, survivors of abuse average more surgeries, physician visits, hospital stays, and mental health consultations than other women, even after accounting for other factors affecting heath care use and discounting emergency room visits (7).
13 Jill Vickers Thinking About Violence
We turn now to Jill Vickers who challenges how we understand violence.
What does Vickers mean when she says that we must think of violence as an issue about which we must think through difference?
14 Mainstream Experiences of Violence
What does the stranger in the night myth reveal?
Violence and threats of violence are the chief means of maintaining the subordination of womento some degree all systems of dominance are maintained through violence and threats of it.
Knowledge of other womens experiences, as spread through media reports and popular culture, can generate a sense of fear that can in turn control womens minds and actions. 226
15 Thinking Through Difference
1) How do marginalized women and their men folk experience violence in Western countries and in Third World and post- communist countries, where levels of public violence are usually much higher?
2) How do different women understand or think about violence in terms of their different experiences of it, what it is and what causes it? What role do women play in perpetuating violence?
Read 223, 228, 230. 232, 233, 238.
3) Causes? 241
According to Amnesty International, half the world's population is singled out for rapes, sexual enslavements, honour killings, forced and underage marriage, pregnancies that endanger lives, genital mutilation and spousal abuse. Rabble Article
17 Local and Global
At least one out of every three women has been beaten, coerced into sex, or otherwise abused in her lifetime, according to a study based on 50 surveys from around the world. Usually, the abuser is a member of her own family or someone known to her.
The Council of Europe has stated that domestic violence is the major cause of death and disability for women aged 16 to 44 and accounts for more death and ill-health than cancer or traffic accidents.
More than 60 million women are 'missing' from the world today as a result of sex-selective abortions and female infanticide, according to an estimate by Amartya Sen, the Nobel Laureate. Chinas last census in the year 2000 revealed that the ratio of new-born girls to boys was 100119. The biological norm is 100103.
In the USA, women accounted for 85 per cent of the victims of domestic violence in 1999 (671,110 compared to 120,100 men), according to the UN Special Rapporteur on violence against women.
The Russian government estimates that 14,000 women were killed by their partners or relatives in 1999, yet the country still has no law specifically addressing domestic violence.
The World Health Organization has reported that up to 70 per cent of female murder victims are killed by their male partners.
19 Often, the most overt and obvious incidences of violence expose the violence infused foundations on which our lives rest and depend. What does this mean? When and Why is violence used? What changes when we name violence as structural, which can still mean that its experienced as profoundly personal?How did the lecture last week on globalization help us to conceptualize structural violence? 20 Structural Violence
How might we expand our understandings of violence?
Wars (rape, ethnic cleansing, mass rape as a policy of war, forced immigration), Massacres (mass murders of women because they are women), Gang Rape, Cultural Violence (mainstream and violent pornography, mainstream media, magazines, etc), General (threats and fears that limit what women feel they can safely do. Complex racist and classed systems), Martial, partner and date rape, stranger rape, sexual harassment, battering, child abuse, gender-based murder (dowry deaths), medical violence (prohibited abortion, forced sterilization), poverty (denial of access to healthcare, education, spousal support), corporate globalization (structural adjustments, precarious work, sweatshop work, flesh trade, forced immigration, etc). And more.
RACISM, SEXISM, and CLASSISM
are dominant forms of structural violence.
violence has come to be seen as a continuum. The notion that there is a continuum of violence reflects the fact that violence is done everywhere, from the most intimate settings to the most public. 235
This INCLUDES both intentional acts AND structural violence.
22 Example The Women of the Vancouver Eastside
The pictures that you see as background here are portraits of 70 women who had disappeared from one of the poorest neighborhoods in Canada Vancouvers Downtown Eastside.
Robert Pickton has been charged with the murder and dismemberment of 26 of these women. He is currently standing trial for 6 of these murders.
The crown has reported that Pickton told an undercover officer that he wanted to kill another woman to make it an even 50, and that he was caught because he was "sloppy".
Though women started disappearing as early as 1996, it took the police until 2002 before they fully searched the Pig Farm of Robert and his brother, where they were known to host parties to which they would bring sex workers from the city for entertainment.
Because the women were impoverished, often because of systemic racism and sexism - many of the women are aboriginal - their disappearance was treated lightly. They were left to be dismembered and fed to pigs, buried and forgotten. This was what our society decided was their fate.
24 And so
How many womens lives would have been spared if it had been white women of privilege disappearing?
As you hear or read about this case, listen for comments on how this tragedy, the biggest serial killer case in Canadian history, is a result of racism, sexism, and the classed society these have helped maintain.
If first considering violence on an individual, domestic, private level, we quickly tap into some of the most heinous ways that inequality has been built into our institutions (systemic racism, sexism, classism), grafted onto our bodies (dichotomous binaries), infused into our sexualities (heteronormativity), imbedded in our economies (flesh trade, the impoverishment of women and children), exploited in war (rape and sexual violence as tools of war), ingrained in our national identities (colonialism/racism), and hidden in our ideas (sexist, racist, classist ideologies).