1 Lecture Spoken English Universität des Saarlandes Department 4.3 English Linguistics Professor Dr. N. R. Norrick SS 2008 Tuesday 4-6 pm 2 Why study talk Conversation as natural Conversation as exemplary Conversation as special register 3 Conversation as natural Commonest register Most general unmarked style of talk In all settings Used by all groups Least monitored most fluent Most consistent for region group individual 4 Conversation as exemplary Richest data source High percentage of core vocabulary Idioms turns of phrase clichés proverbs 5 Conversation as exemplary 2 Full range of paralanguage Intonation stress drawl stutter whisper creaky voice ingressive sounds sing-song 6 Conversation as exemplary 3 Wide range of functions descriptive narrative emotive appellative dialogue figures 7 Conversation as exemplary 4 Face-to-face Real-ti me processing and production Locally bound me you this here now Context-specific participants interaction goals topics 8 Conversation as exemplary 5 Feedback mechanisms Understanding checks yknow right Attention signals m-hm uh-huh oh 9 Conversation as exemplary 6 Repair mechanisms Self-repair See you Tuesday- I mean Wednesday. Other-repair A See you Tuesday. B You mean Wednesday. A Right Wednesday. Co-productions A She was wearing one of these old uh- B Bonnets A Yeah. 10 Conversation as exemplary 7 Full range of vocal production Imitations buzz splat wham kerplop Non-words tsk whoa whew uh-uh m-hm m-m-m Expressive intonation angry aspiration ironic lengthening riiiight 11 Representative of community behavior Power and solidarity how we show respect deference and distance friendship and closeness names forms of address choice of verb forms etc. Good morning Sir vs. Yo dude Could you please pass the salt vs. Hey salt! politeness strategies 12 Membership asking directions presupposes membership as local giving directions presupposes membership in group car owners bus users locals etc. get on bus 19 drive out through gate turn left take Meerwiesertalweg toward town 13 Alignment we (both) versus we (not you) 2nd versus 3rd person you versus Bob here wants to go 14 World View use of man for humankind use of he for everybody except traditionally female rolese.g. the flight attendant/stewardess . . . she Good evening ladies and gentlemen 15 Common Sense me-centered human local big tall bigger taller than me hot cold hotter colder than usual here old weird from my perspective 16 Folk Logic I cant hardly stand it same difference no head injury is too small to ignore 17 Interaction 1 turn-taking sequences A Hey Judy B Yeah A Can you help me here B Sure. A Thanks. B No problem. 18 reasons to study conversation 1 for students of English language and literature and cultures Conversation reveals patterns of usage for individuals for groups for the linguistic community role of talk in human understanding and interaction language in social relations not as abstract structure 19 reasons to study conversation 2 everyday conversation has a central place in linguistics includes all of descriptive linguistics phonology morphology phraseology syntax semantics pragmatics all contained in conversation analysis all tools for studying discourse all apply to adjacent areas with organic connections together they contribute to view of language as dynamic interaction 20 Talk in Language 1 Talk and speech language and system Saussure on parole langage langue Saussures dichotomies privileging langue over parole 21 Talk in Language 2 Conversation vs dialogue (reported talk) spoken prose reading aloud reciting from memory professional reporting 22 Talk versus Text 1 Biological factors determine features of talk gtlt Cultural conventions govern the form of text 23 Talk versus Text 2 Talk produced by lungs vocal chords tongue lips (breath group intonation group) for the ear stress-timing (vs. syllable-timing) Intonation (contours and stresses) prosody (tempo volume rhythm voice quality) Text produced by hand for the eye left to right in lines with spaces paragraphs sentences words letters caps/lower case diacritics punctuation 24 Talk versus Text 3 Talk is for current local listeners (ephemeral) bound to context/participants markers of relationship (terms of Address pronouns you we lets) Text is for any present or future reader even removed spatially (permanent) relatively context free generally accessible impersonal 25 Talk versus Text 4 Talk is produced in real time hesitations false starts repetitions clarifications elisions omissions reduced forms abbreviations speech rate is not just limited by natural factors speakers adjust their speech rate to listeners and contexts Text is produced at leisure time to edit full sentences eliminate false starts hesitations and time to spell everything out in detail no time constraints on reading individual readers determine their own reading rate they can re-read as often as they wish 26 tempo of talk slow talk goes about 3 words per second or 180 words per minute fast talk can go 5 words per second or almost 300 words per minute Stories go faster than topical talk and women talk faster than men some women tell practiced stories at about 260 words per minute upper limit about 400 words per minute or about 6.5 words per second when reciting a practiced text for a short period 27 Written representation versus interactional speech 1 written planned edited pre-modified phrases definite descriptions sentential marked relationships between clauses 28 Written representation versus interactional speech 2 spoken face-to-face with eye contact gesture spatial orientation voice quality (volume pitch timbre) accent prosody (tempo rhythm) Only these three heard on phone but we can still identify callers we know and even tell how theyre feeling 29 Written representation vs interactional speech 3 writing is organized around sentences speech is organized around intonation units Intonation units about 5 words long one or two intonation peaks single chunk of information first Given then New 30 intonation units so I wént I went ín and I hád the báll and I just like túrned around and I shót it- didnt even lóok and it like hít off the báckboard só hárd. it was só bád intonation units may also be sentences but significant for speech in real time 31 talk in interaction Talk in interaction is unplanned hesitations pauses fillers digression dynamic topic development generalized vocabulary repetition formulaic speech 32 editing talk on-line restarts self-correction li ttle pre-modification concrete contextual reference no sentential orientation paratactic relationships between short intonation units theres this guy and hes really old and hes got this dog like a really ugly dog and he walks in here For written text we prefer A rather old gentleman with a terribly ugly dog entered. 33 face-to-face talk Besides information conveyed visually and through the voice talk is full of cues to the listener Jack hey have you seen Al and Judy Jill well I saw Judy. Jack Al was with her though right Jill theyve kind of been like fighting yknow readers must cue on neutral lexical meaning Jack asked Jill if shed seen Al and Judy. Jill said shed seen Judy. Jack asked if Al had been with her and Jill said theyd been fighting. 34 listener activities Listeners do not inertly and silently receive talk by speakers They actively demonstrate listenership uptake understanding agreement or disagreement emotional involvement activities in the back-channel (Yngve 1970) 35 back-channel activities 1 Visual back-channel activities nods smiles grimaces furrowed brows gestures Audible back-channel signals nonlinguistic sounds sighs inhalations laughs 36 back-channel activities 2 linguistic signals discourse markers like yeah and okay interjections like wow and damn attention signals such as m-hm and uh-huh 37 listener activities listener activities signal recipiency emotional involvement in foregoing talk changes in information states certain items specialized for signaling recipiency uh-huh m-hm Related notions continuer response token 38 signaling recipiency 1 Brianne its midnight blue I mean thats nice. Addie uh-huh. Brianne okay but its got like these puffy sleeves. Brianne I came on Wednesday night. Addie m-hm. Brianne oh I tried something different this time 39 signaling involvement Assessments FRANK no bigger than that. RON mhm. MELISSA wow. FRANK we- -- and we got out to ... Earth lt2836gt didnt give the people enough time to get off the train. Elizabeth and about four or five other people. lt2834gt gosh. lt28 36gt couldnt get off . . . 40 signaling involvement 2 Assessments marking increasing involvement lt1gt yeah but then thats it. it never rains in the summer. lt2gt weird. lt1gt it is weird. lt2429gt but anyway then what what did it register lt2432gt about three. lt2429gt about three. anyway. lt2425gt holy shit. lt2432gt and when you shower its fifty to sixty times higher than that. 41 signaling changes in information states lt3gt she was going down Liberty Street and a tree fell that way if it had a gone this way it would have hit her car. lt2gt oh. lt1gt I mean right next to her right next to her. lt1gt and then you just put them in Mason jars and sterilize Mason jars lt2gt I dont sterilize them. lt1gt oh. lt2gt well I wash them 42 Deixis in speech vs writing face-to-face speech deictic expressions refer to position place time of speaker here over there right now yesterday or hearer on your left just behind you 43 Deixis in written text writer specifies some character or object as deictic reference point to the left of the house just behind Judy later the same day 44 Speech and Writing as Registers spoken written language as separate media for different functions in different settings with different stylistic tendencies (Biber) 1st and 2nd person personal pronouns contraction passive nominalization characteristic structures and different frequencies in spoken and written discourse 45 Personal Pronouns speech contains more 1st and 2nd person personal pronouns I you we since we generally talk about ourselves and each other in face-to-face interaction while writing concerns public and fictional persons unfamiliar to readers 46 Contractions Speech contains more contractions forms institutionalized in both speech and writing cant wont shell theyll Im weve youre hes compound contractions in talk theyllve left by now she cantve gone far wedve seen them if they were here 47 reduction or ellision in everyday speech some people from townll be there too I hope tove finished by noon the one she wanteds already gone compare standardized spellings of pronunciation patterns gotcha for got you wanna for want to 48 Passive The passive is typical of writing and rare in everyday speech Passive includes (according to Biber) Sue was greeted formally by the mayor. Sue was greeted formally at town hall. The woman (who was) greeted formally left early. 49 Nominalization Nominalization is characteristic of and more frequent in writing Biber defines Nominalization to include words ending with the suffixes -tion -ness -ity -ment This does not cover all nominalizations the short list makes counting easier covers too much e.g. moment covers too little e.g. comparison abhorence but provides a good measure of writtenness versus spokenness 50 Historical background For most of history even for most of the history of linguistics language has been taken to mean the written form of language first languages studied (Sanskrit Latin) were dead languages known only through written records Historical linguists sought to relate extent written forms of languages like Latin and English or various stages of a language like Old English and Middle English 51 Recorded talk Till very recent advent of audio and video recording writing was the only method of preserving spoken language first recordings of spoken language seemed incoherent and laughable listeners accustomed to written texts performances by trained readers carefully planned speeches by professional speakers 52 Firth 1935 conversation as key to understanding language and meaning but only offered impressionistic remarks Birdwhistle from 1952 micro-analysis of kinesics complex coding and transcription of body movement 53 Fries 1952 The structure of English Fries recorded phone conversations first grammar based on recorded data a large body of actual English speech observed and recorded in a community with advent of audio recording no excuse for intuition-based grammars corpus over 50 hours of surreptitiously recorded telephone talk participants were unaware that their speech was being recorded Fries simply requested and received permission to tap into phone lines no moral question of intrusion into privacy no question of Fries integrity as a disinterested scholar no tapes they recorded on discs! defends everyday usage at length upholds school standard but insists on authentic data 54 Goffman from 1955 describing everyday behavior found regular patterns in everyday behavior below level of consciousness or barely noticed by participants Hymes 1962 Ethnography of Speaking speech act speech event speech situation 55 Abercrombie 1965 characteristics of conversation impressionistic account Sacks Schegloff from 1967 conversation as data for sociology focus on interaction rather than grammar pronunciation lexis rigorous analysis of everyday conversation openings closings 56 Labov and associates from 1967 Oral narratives as sociolinguistic data Personal narrative as most consistent register especially in highly emotional stories Sinclair from 1972 classroom talk preferred orderly classroom interaction because everyday talk was too complicated Crystal Davy 1973 conversation as basic style disfluencies like pauses repetition uh and yknow positive characteristics of conversation geared to face-to-face real-time interaction 57 Svartvik Quirk 1980 London-Lund Corpus Large-scale corpus of conversation Henne Rehbock from 1980 Gesprächsanalyse Quasthof f from 1980 Erzählen im Gespräch 58 Chomsky from 1968 negative influence talk as too messy and ungrammatical for systematic description abstract mental competence as goal intuitions about grammaticality as evidence 59 Toward a linguistics of talk Everyday talk as messy and ungrammatical If everyday talk is messy and ungrammatical its up to linguists to explain why to show how apparent messiness and ungrammaticality facilitate talk We should determine where and when so-called ungrammatical structures occur We should describe recurrent sorts of apparent messiness to discover their distribution and functions If we want to get at real competence we need to show how speakers and listeners interact to create the sorts of talk we observe 60 Tony hey man. Joe hey. Tony how goes it Joe not too shabby. How about you Tony just got back from town. Joe really Tony yeah bummer. Joe want a beer Tony sure. School Grammar doesnt help us here conversationalists need a ready repertoire of interactional chunks to maintain a fluid give-and-take 61 system of everyday conversation developed in human interaction the sort of language native speaker children are surrounded with and they somehow recognize systems within it kids dont just acquire grammar they must learn to distribute disfluencies in appropriate places so what appears messy must serve our interactional needs and contribute to the system of everyday talk in various ways 62 Disfluencies 1 false starts and self-corrections stutters and filled pauses like um and ah and yknow make conversational appear less linear and fluent than the edited paragraphs of a short story less orderly than artificially discrete speeches of successive characters in a play script. but these features are not random or without function 63 Disfluencies 2 play a prominent role in the organization of conversation facilitate verbalization and remembering enhance coherence contribute to coordinated interaction In stories disfluencies routinely mark openings repetition usually accompanies closings 64 Disfluencies 3 speakers and listeners must apportion limited cognitive resources to constructing and understanding talk respectively they rely on disfluencies and repetition gain planning time focus attention mark transitions reinforce evaluations 65 Audience participation Disfluencies give the listeners a chance to atune themselves to ongoing talk encourage audience attention and participation. Listeners in turn signal attention and understanding with back-channels like m-hm and oh with evaluative feedback like wow and no way even interruptions leading to simultaneous talk 66 Acquiring competence for talk-in-interaction kids dont acquire simple grammar they dont just learn to talk-- They also learn to listen actively participate co-produce co-narrate T hey even learn to listen inattentively interrupt where appropriate audience participation correlates with switches from serious turn-by-turn conversation to wordplay or storytelling. 67 conversational interaction well be interested in particulars of conversational interaction transcription as a means of recording conversation details of talk 68 Recording conversational data 1 natural conversation ubiquitous but hard to collect Field notes Equipment audio and video Settings Lab Craig and Tracy (1983) surreptitious in lab Media radio and TV Professional public speakers But also talk show guests radio call-in shows natural home work recreation send students out with recording equipment 69 Recording conversational data 2 Ethical considerations Informing subjects Getting permission Hiding identities Observers paradox How can we observe the way unobserved talk works All speech monitored Study recording effects Speakers ignore and forget Observer as participant Supplementing recordings with interview data 70 Transcription Representing talk makes it appear unnatural Transcription as theory no single correct transcription different transcriptions for different purposes Transcription as descriptive phonetics IPA and other phonetic alphabets Broad/phonemic vs narrow/phonetic (emic vs etic) Transcription in dialectology Dialect features Distinctive features and isoglosses 71 Transcription in psycholinguistics Acquisition and loss variance from model Parallel processing Slips pauses stutters blends Transcription in Language teaching Features which differ for L1 and L2 Interference patterns Transcription in narrative analysis Regularize to standard orthography Eye dialect he wuz goin tuh town awright bei dem mußtesse ECHT vorsichtich san nich 72 Transcription in Conversation Analysis Jefferson Sacks CA Gail Jefferson works out typewriter system for Sacks Popularized among linguistics by articles in Language 1974 1977 Comic book type eye dialect laugh tokens 73 Crystal London-Lund Corpus Crystal works out system for London-Lund Corpus (Svartvik Quirk 1980) Comments on accent voice quality prosody 74 SCOSE My original transcriptions partly based on Jefferson CA system partly baed on Interactional Sociolinguistics (Tannen Schiffrin) later influenced by Chafe one intonation unit per line Dropped initial capitals as marks of sentences transcribing one intonation unit per line brings out rhythm of talk highlights frequency of units beginning with and uh well shows importance of initial and final discourse markers 75 (No Transcript) 76 German transcription systems Generally represent some but not all features of dialect 77 Quasthoff (1980) Berlinerisch 78 Schu (1984) Saarländisch 79 Conversation in Pragmatics and Anthropology Speec h Acts Austins (1962) How to do things with words language to accomplish actions not just to make true or false statements. various sorts of speech acts performative analysis of particular verbs and sentences 80 Searle (1969 1975) developed Austins insights Locutionary acts referring predicating negating subordinating Illocutionar y acts naming promising apologizing congratulating Perlocutionary acts persuading intimidating incriminating 81 speech act theory and real talk many of the most familiar utterances dont fit into simple classes Greetings hi hello Leave-takings bye goodbye Pause fillers well lets see Transitions first off anyway Back-channels uh-huh m-hm most utterances in real talk are polyfunctional George Would you like to fly to Chicago with me Sarah Id love to! Sarahs Id love to! expressive of her emotion commissive in committing her to fly to Chicago with George answer to a question response to an invitation 82 The real problem for speech act theory is sequence For many speech acts function depends on sequential position A Is the earth flat B Yes. --states what the speaker believes A Will you marry me B Yes. --commits speaker to a course of action A Must I leave B Yes! --gets someone else to do something A You won the lottery. B Yes! --statement of joy Whats missing from speech act theory is listeners Speakers dont mean alone but only with hearers in contexts 83 Speech Events 1 Ethnography of Speaking Hymes 1962 situations functions patterns and uses of talk in societies communicative competence (versus grammatical) appropriateness in context (versus grammaticality) 84 Speech Events 2 For any linguistic community characteristic speech events sales talk storytelling gossip weather report sermon typical written forms recipe personal and business letters newspaper column short story 85 Speech events 3 Speech event encompasses multiple speech acts culturally defined Speech situation scene (cultural) and setting (physical) Speech event within Speech situation composed of Speech acts Speech act minimal unit of speech event Speech situation - speech event - speech act market place transaction - offer conversation - story - preface ceremony - prayer - invocation 86 Components defining speech events Participants Addressor Addressee Audience Ends purpose of event goals of participants Key mock vs serious perfunctory vs painstaking etc Form dialect variety register etc Genre poem proverb lecture advertisement etc Norms no gap no overlap in conversation speak only when youre spoken to for children These categories apply to written texts as well as speech events as such but there are important differences in the ways they apply 87 Presupposition Stalnakers (1974) definition of pragmatic presupposition A proposition B is a pragmatic presupposition of a speaker in a given context just in case the speaker assumes or believes that B assumes that his audience assumes or believes B and assumes or believes that his audience recognizes that he is making these assumptions. Note particularly the reflexive assumptions in this definition 88 Existential presupposition Any name or definite description refers to an identifiable individual Judy gave the red ball to the boy with freckles Theres a girl named Judy a red ball and a boy with freckles Negation test Marys car is fast Mary has a car Marys car is not fast Mary has a car Factive (with factive predicates) Bill regrets/resents that Suzy won the game Suzy won the game Suzy is happy/sad that she won the game 89 Politeness 1 Politeness as a historical phenomenon Politeness as in-group behavior Politeness as code of civility Political Correctness as enforced politeness 90 Pronouns of power and solidarity 1 Brown Gilman (1960) semantics of power and solidarity in use of 2nd person pronouns In clearly stratified society power semantic developed non-reciprocal V to mark deference then reciprocal V spread among nobility 91 Pronouns of power and solidarity 2 In more mobile society solidarity semantic developed reciprocal non-solidary V even among common people reciprocal solidary T even among powerful people Also reciprocal T to mark shared fate power semantic still determines who initiates T shared fate only works when fate is lack of power pronoun use interacts with other systems like honorifics in Japanese English lost 2nd person pronoun distinction 92 Politeness in Linguistic Pragmatics 1 Lakoff Be friendly Dont impose Give options Brown and Levinson Positive and negative face face wants and face threats Goffman face as image/reputation/pe rsonality self presented by individual for ratification by group we seek to maintain face in interaction 93 Politeness in Linguistic Pragmatics 2 Negative Politeness 1 Maintain distance (respect) 2 Give options (deference) Positive Politeness Be friendly (solidarity) Face threatening acts Requests invitations 94 Avoiding face threatening acts pre-sequences pre-sequences also contribute to coherence in conversation Pre-request Ann would you do me a favor Bob sure. Ann are you going to be needing your car this weekend Bob uh not really. Ann great. Could I borrow it Saturday night Bob I guess so. Ann Id have it back early Sunday. Bob okay no problem. 95 Pre-invitation Ed so are you busy Saturday night Judy not really. Ed have you seen the new Star Wars movie Judy no. Ed do you want to go with me Saturday Judy Id love to. Of course the recipient may anticipate the invitation Ed so are you busy Saturday night Judy what do you have in mind Ed do you like Chinese food Judy at which restaurant Ed Kung Foo on Elm Street. Judy Id love to. 96 Conversation in Discourse Analysis Conversation as Style (Register) Describe characteristics of conversation by comparison with other styles or registers classroom talk scientific writing dramatic dialogue 97 Style in conversation Describe characteristics of individual speakers talk by comparison with other speakers or from one context to another Or describe teenagers talk by comparison with adults or womens talk by comparison with mens 98 Cohesion and coherence Conversation has its own systems of Cohesion and Coherence Keys and Cues in conversation keying (Hymes) contextualizatio n cues (Gumperz) 99 Keying Conversationalists cooperate to negotiate interactional parameters they adopt a particular key for their interaction chatty business-like solemn playful 100 Contextualization Cues 1 conversationalists have a wide range of strategies for creating coherence and maintaining involvement they coordinate their talk and secure understanding body language paralinguistic features intonation volume tempo interactional cues 101 Contextualization Cues 2 Understanding checks yknow right huh Attention signals mhm uh-huh wow really Discourse markers well Im not sure anyway she finally quit it doesnt matter though they all left early yknow Hedges kind of sort of a little (bit) well lets say 102 Contextualization Cues 3 Evidentials as far as I know I guess clearly obviously probably Tags canonical tags auxiliary reversed negative polarity personal pronoun Its cold isnt it Its not cold is it Judy will win wont she Judy didnt win did she uninflected tags right okay huh see also dialectal innit It was Judy right Ill do it okay So Judy won huh They lost again innit 103 Conversational structure starting points Schiffrin (1987) discourse markers as left brackets Hymes (1974) initial position defines mood of speech event Rühlemann (2007) initial discourse markers as discourse management phenomena Chafe (1994) subjects as starting points for clauses Schegloff (1987) turn beginnings as resource for the projection of the turn-shape McCarthys (2003) turn-initial position as locus of choice 104 starting points in spontaneous conversation frequent initial discourse markers lt2gt and that came through the mail. lt1gt well isnt that nice lt2gt yeah. oh shes a but like you said shes cute as you know Kaliber. lt1gt yeah Keely will love this. shes just really yeah lt2gt but Im trying to get things that you can move you know. lt1gt well Im hoping. yeah I would like to move back to Chicago or some place around here. lt2gt uh-huh well now in the area some way. lt1gt yeah I dont know. Mark doesnt want to leave California. lt2gt yeah yeah it is. well you get settled someplace sometimes you know. lt1gt well hes doing a lot of acting and thats really the I guess its the place. lt2gt yeah uh huh. lt1gt but he can do that in lt2gt but this is all experience too. 105 Yeah as a turn initiator 1 yeah is by far the most frequent turn initiator in spoken American English The most frequent use of yeah is to acknowledge the receipt of information that is new to the discourse but consistent with current active information (Jucker and Smith 1998) yeah can stand alone as a response token BRAD our blue book usually shows the Uhers. TAMMY yeah. BRAD our older Uhers. 106 Yeah as a turn initiator 2 yeah may function as a direct positive response to a question lt1375gt youre at U C S B lt1308gt yeah Im a uh graduate student in Anthropology lt1375gt uh-huh. yeah may signal agreement with a statement in the foregoing turn lt1625gt someones playing the trumpet over there. lt1626gt yeah he plays that. he plays tuba and uh all the brass. 107 Yeah as a turn initiator 3 yeah also occurs as an initial transition word lt1388gt do you have any more complaints for the evening. lt1380gt I just feel sick. lt1321gt yeah its something you ate ((laugh)) lt1321gt does anyone want any dessert lt2gt well I think thats so wonderful shes interested in that. and you know like I said Id like to foster it some way you know. lt1gt uh-huh. lt2gt thats why I sent that picture of mother. lt1gt yeah shes just fascinated by that. lt2gt yeah uh-huh. 108 Yeah as a turn initiator 4 yeah but to raise an objection lt1388gt how come how come I thought I thought you all gave it to her gave her the piece. lt1380gt yeah but theres still a little piece left. lt1387gt but everyones was almost the same price. lt1321gt well how much what price is that lt1388gt yeah but you guys Im really poor. lt1387gt I mean almost the same price I mean 109 Yeah as a turn initiator 5 yeah right ironically signals disagreement lt1373gt theyre about between seventy and ninety percent fat ... calories from fat ... pretty high. lt1308gt yeah lt1375gt people fool themselves into thinking the dry roasted are any different lt1308gt yeah right. lt1375gt ((laugh)) 110 Assessments in initial position 1 Discourse markers are fairly neutral Initial assessments show increasing degrees of emotion Brandon with two bodyguards to protect him. Lydia wow to think of it. Brandon to see a person in that position. lt1491gt couple of months. but he was seriously injured in the accident. lt1488gt man he should stay off the roads. lt1486gt where did you find a fork 111 Assessments in initial position 2 Initial assessments expressing high degrees of emotion lt1gt he tried to set fire to the cabinets thank god it didnt take you know . lt2gt jesus youre kidding me lt1gt no. and uh finally it turns out what happens was . . . BHgt I was just going oh wow congratulations and AGgt SHIT thats great. 112 Sequence and Structure in Conversation Conversati on has characteristic structures and sequences move turn adjacency pair exchange pre-sequence 113 Sue hi. greeting Jill hi. greeting Sue so how have you been. question Jill not so well really. answer Sue oh Im sorry to hear that. response Jill how about you question Sue not too bad I guess. answer Jill yes one muddles through. response Sue by the way Im looking for Al. statement request Jill I just saw him at Lous. response Sue really who else was there response/question Jill Fred. answer Sue wow. are you busy right now response/question (pre-sequence) Jil l not really. answer Sue would you do me a favor question (pre-request) Jill sure. answer (commitment) Sue would you call Al for me request Jill sure. no problem agree/comment Sue great. thanks. comment/thank Jill no problem. comment 114 London School Firth Halliday Sinclair Crystal/Davy Quirk/Svartvik London-Lund Corpus exchange analysis Firth and Halliday as functionalists 115 context of situation Halliday develops general concepts for Firths context of situation Field (activity subject matter) Mode (channel genre) Tenor (social relations) Linguistic features associated with situational features constitute a Register (personal narrative oral among friends) Register coupled with context of culture determine choices in discourse 116 3 major functional-semantic components Ideationa l Experiential reflecting context of culture Logical abstract Interpersonal social expressive appellative Textual coherence in text and context every clause divides into theme-rheme every spoken tone group divides into given-new Hallidayan Systemics naturally applies to texts and supplies special category for spoken discourse 117 Exchange analysis 1 The Birmingham School Sinclair Coulthard Burton Brazil Ranks act move exchange transaction Exchange as two three or more moves in length I(nitiation) R(esponse) F(eedback) teacher-pupil I Whats the capital of France Judy. R Uh Paris F Yes right. I Whats the capital of France Judy. R Uh Berlin. F/I No. Somebody else Sally R Paris. F Of course. 118 Exchange analysis 2 General conversation I So how have you been. R Not so well lately. F Sorry to hear that. I So how have you been. R/I Fine. And you R Not so well lately. F Sorry to hear that. I So how have you been. R Not so well lately. F Sorry to hear that. R Well it cant be helped I guess. 119 Exchange analysis 3 at some point its all just R R R I So how have you been. R Not so well lately. F Sorry to hear that. R Well it cant be helped I guess. R I suppose not. R One just muddles on. R Thats for sure. I R F provide very little analysis no distinction of directness no indication of power politeness etc. I Would you mind closing that window please R Not at all (closing window). F Much obliged. R My pleasure. I Close the window. R Close it your bloody self. F Imbecile. R Same to you. 120 Conversation Analysis 1 CA Sacks Schegloff Jefferson Sociolinguistcs using conversation as data following Goffman Garfinkle Turn move Adjacency pair Insertion sequence Preference Pre-sequence 121 Conversation Analysis 2 A hi. B hi. A whats happening. B not much. whats happening with you. A not much. Im looking for Judy. B I just saw her at Lous. A really who else was there B Fred. A wow. do you have a minute B yeah. A would you do me a favor B sure. A would you go to Lous and tell Judy to call me B sure. no problem. A great. thanks. B no problem. 122 Insertion sequences A are you coming to the party Thursday B will Harry be there A sure. B then yes. Double insertion sequence A where can I catch the Saarbahn B do you know where Landwehrplatz is A is it just over on the Mainzer Strasse B yeah. A then I know how to get there. B well thats where you catch the Saarbahn. Limits on insertion sequences A where can I catch the Saarbahn B do you know where Landwehrplatz is A is it just over on the Mainzer-Strasse B do you mean Großherzog-Friedrich-Straße A I guess so. B yeah. A then I know how to get there. B well thats where you catch the Saarbahn. 123 Pre-sequences 1 Pre-announcement Ann oh guess who I saw last night. Bob who Ann Judy. Bob really Ann yeah. she was at the movies with George. Bob wow. Compare Ann oh guess who I saw last night. Bob Harry Ann no Judy. Bob oh. 124 Also Ann do you know who I saw at the movies last night Bob who Ann Judy. Bob wow. Compare Ann do you know who I saw at the movies last night Bob no. Ann Judy. Bob oh. Conclusion If you can hear a question as a pre-sequence do so Theoretical conclusion any theory of spoken language must include sequentiali ty 125 Repair preference for self-repair Self-repair A I saw Judy last Tuesday- sorry Monday. Other-initiated repair A I saw Judy last Tuesday. B uh Tuesday A oh yeahI saw her Monday at the party. Other-repair A I saw Judy last Monday. B you mean Tuesday. A yeah I saw her at Nancys. 126 Membership People who know what the Saarbahn is People who know where Landwehrplatz is People who know where the Mainzer-Straße is . . . Also People in a restaurant We walked into a restaurant and greeted the bartender and the wine steward before the maitre d reached us. 127 Conversation openers Hi Hi Whats happening . . . Summons as opening A Nancy B yes A is that you B yeah. What do you want A I just wanted to make sure it was you. B yeah hi. A hi. Telephone ring as summons A ring B hello. A is Bill there B who is this A Martha. B oh hi. A hi Vera. B yeah Ill get him. A thanks. 128 Conversation closings usually with pre-closings A okay see you Thursday. B yeah Thursday. A okay bye. B yeah bye. A bye. A so come and see us if youre ever in Boston. B you bet thanks. A good to see you. B yeah take care. A okay bye. B yeah bye. 129 Meaning determined by following turns 1 Brad do you want some candy Julie sure. Brad here (offering dish). Offer Acceptance Brad do you want some candy Julie sure. Brad put it on the shopping list. Request for Information Reply 130 Meaning determined by following turns 2 Ann do you want to come along Hal yes. Ann then well need another car. Request for info Reply Justification for question Ann do you want to come along Hal yes. Ann great. Offer Acceptance Comment Ann do you want to come along Hal yes. Ann you better be ready in five minutes. Hal okay. Pre-warning Reply Warning 131 Stories in conversation Stories as turns To initiate adjacency pair story must signal expected response and must signal the need for multiple moves via Tellability Tellability A new story must be relevant and newsworthy to get and hold the floor and escape censure at its conclusion A familiar story may be tellable based not on its content but on the dynamics of the narrative event itself Story content need not be relevant or newsworthy if co-narration holds the promise of high involvement 132 Story Preface Preface argues tellability and signals expected response do you remember the time . . . oh God you wont believe what happened . . . the first time/last time/only time . . . it was really weird . . . 133 APARTMENT HUNTING Brianne so laughs like one week. it was one day. it was really weird. we were in the weirdest mood. it was this rainy old day. Addie uh-huh. Brianne and we were just looking through the newspaper at apartments. and were like lets go look at some. Addie laughs Brianne and we made these appointments. and we went- went all over the place and looked at several places we had appointments for. it was fun. Addie oh thats cool. Brianne yknow just to get some ideas of what the prices are and what we were looking at and that kind of thing. Addie thats pretty neat. Note Preface Evaluation Response Result/Resolution 134 Second Stories 1 Second story functions as the second part of an adjacency pair tellability based on its response to first part story second story preface shows understanding parallel experience etc I know just what you mean. The same thing happened to me Also story topping oh thats nothing. listen to this. waitll you hear what happened to me. 135 Second Stories 2 Iris Gingers story reminded me of well I dont know speaking of stupid things you did in your youth. General laughter I went to the orthodontist one time. and they . . . 136 Second Stories 3 Brianne yeah. see this is one of those things you just got it comes over you and then it giggles goes back and you forget that it ever happened at all. laughter Addie oh. laughing I know. I know. it happened. Brianne giggles Addie yeah it happened to me this year with em a different guy. em my friend Tom has a and I have. well Toms friend Chris Brianne mhm. Addie is a pretty cool guy and I sort of fell for him earlier. 137 Two linked stories ACCIDENTS Mike thats right you cant wrestle around or bad things will happen. Jason yeah Roger got his nose Mike you know what happened to my one of my aunts friends out in Iowa like when- when she was younger she had a headgear from braces and these two girls were wrestling around just playing around wrestling. and one girl pulled her headgear off her mouth and let it snap back. and it slid up her face and stuck in her eyes and blinded her. Jason wow. 138 ACCIDENTS (cont) Mike isnt that horrid thats horrid. Jason when my- Mike blinded her for life. isnt that horrid. thats just- I mean just from goofing around Jason you know what happened to my aunt Florence when she was a little girl Mike ooh what happened. Jason she was like screwing around like around Christmas time and like she I- I guess this was like when they had candles on trees she lit her hair on fire. Mike oh wow. Repetition Story Closings and Response esp. via second story 139 Models of conversational interaction Conversation as a game conversational contribution as turn in game turn as desired commodity in competition Conversation as a symphony with harmony as goal conversational contribution as one voice in composition Conversation as a tapestry participants weave contributions together into whole especially Chafe insists Conversation has no product conversation is evanescent and unremarkable except for its effect on the relationship between participants and on their attitudes primarily about each other So what about gender age specialist knowledge Do all participants have equal rights to turns Do all participants have equal power in opening closing topic choice 140 Interactional Sociolinguistics 1 Gumperz Goffman Tannen Schiffrin Involvement Communica tion is a social activity requiring coordinated efforts of two or more participants in an identifiable speech event (following Hymes) to participate in speech events to create and maintain involvement we require knowledge and abilities beyond grammar Communicative competence as opposed to grammatical competence 141 Interactional Sociolinguistics 2 Even before we can decide to take part we must infer what the interaction is about and whats expected of us once involved we must signal understanding and goals either directly in words or indirectly through prosody gesture etc. in face-to-face interaction we convey (and must convey) far more than we can put into words (and grammar) in order to coordinate stategies and goals contextualizati on cues signal contextual presuppositions allow situated inferences about intentions and speech event 142 Interactional Sociolinguistics 3 Interactional Sociolinguistics focusses on everything beyond grammar lexis and phonology namely prosody formulaicity code-switching style intercultural and inter-ethnic communication effects of sociolinguistic variables on communication male/female old/young insider/outsider power/solidarity 143 Self and Framing Interactional Sociolinguistics follows Goffmans notions of Self and Framing In the presentation of self in everyday life the individual defines a self or personality as a social identity Individuals present a self for ratification by others in social interaction we adopt a stance putting ourselves on a footing with different groups aligning and re-aligning ourselves with other individuals We frame our interactions in terms of our expectations we bracket individual acts or stretches of interaction signaling our intentions via Gumperz contextualization cues and aligning ourselves with certain other participants 144 Black student to professor about to leave the room accompanied by other black and white students Stud could I talk to you for a minute Im gonna apply for a fellowship and I was wondering if I could get a recommendation Prof o kay. come along to the office and tell me what you want to do. As the instructor and the rest of the group left the room turning his head to the other students Stud ahma git me a gig! framing utterances in different ways contextualization cues (prosody formulaicity lexis) aligning first with the instructor then with the students code-switching from Standard American to African-American Vernacular 145 Conversational style Conversational Style (Tannen 1984) Tannen redefines involvement as a scalar property of interaction so that styles of interaction are heard as high or low involvement where low involvement equals high considerateness For Gumperz contextualization cues help maintain involvement but for Tannen contextualization cues distinguish styles High-involvement fast no pause or overlap joint production Low-involvement considerateness slow long pauses no interruption 146 Involvement High vs low involvement style may characterize a type of speaker a passage of talk a type of discourse New Yorkers exhibit higher involvement than Californians women exhibit higher involvement than men talk between friends exhibits higher involvement than talk among strangers storytelling exhibits higher involvement than a lab report 147 high involvement between conarrators 1 James we were in this 2 we were in a peat bog 3 Lois uh 4 James in Ire- in Ireland. 5 eh no it wasnt in Ireland 6 it was on the Isle of Skye 7 Lucy no we were on the Isle of Skye 8 James sorry on the Isle of Skye 9 Lucy right next to the west coast of Scotland 10 James we were right on the north- 11 right in the north 12 Lucy new years eve 13 James new years eve 14 Lucy freezing cold 15 James freezing cold 16 Lucy in the middle of nowhere 17 just nothing 148 18 James and we got stuck in this terrible bog. 19 laughs and jus- 20 as far as the eye could see 21 it was just bog 22 and we were like walking through it 23 and it was quite late 24 Lucy and it was late 25 and it was becoming dark 26 about five oclock 27 Emma aw 28 Lucy and it was really really cold 29 and we were on our way home 30 after a long walk . . . overlap joint production speaker change repetition 149 Involvement 2 Tannen observed differences in womens and mens styles of involvement claims men and women engage in cross-cultural communication Women higher involvement - closer together - more eye contact - more understanding checks - more attention signals - shorter gaps - more overlap - shorter turns - more frequent speaker change - more egalitarian - less appeal to expert knowledge 150 Involvement 3 Men lower involvement -farther apart - less eye contact - fewer understanding checks - fewer attention signals - longer gaps - less overlap - longer turns - less frequent speaker change - less egalitarian - more appeal to expert knowledge Mens and womens conversational styles clash causing systematic misunderstandings in everyday interaction attenti on to stylistic differences and realization of their effects reframing and meta-talk about differences can smooth interaction 151 Power and Solidarity Defining Power Power as a transitive feature of relationships though power is ultimately reciprocal (Foucault) Power as socially constructed through language/discourse n ot given a priori in nature Power is encoded in the discourses of a community Power is excercised through and negotiated in Language Contextualizat ion cues are keys to power in interaction 152 Power and Solidarity two related axes Power superior equal inferior Solidarity solidary vs unsolidary Solidary implies closeness unsolidary implies distance Closeness also implies control (power) while distance renders power differences irrelevant 153 dominance and subordination Tannen proposes interrelated axes dominance and subordination closeness and distance only those approximately equal in power negotiate dominance from one situation to the next 154 Ambiguity and paradox in power and solidarity 1 Making a request seems to signal dependence (one-down status) but it may signal expectation of fulfillment (one-up status) Sharing possessions seems to signal solidarity (equal status) but it may signal an attempt to control (one-up status) 155 Paradox of Power and Solidarity (Tannen) Simultaneous speech co-production (solidarity) interruption (power) A woman overlaps to help a man find a word but he feels she has interrupted him. Al so we went down to the- the- Betty Safeway Al just give me a minute okay 156 Ambiguity and paradox in power and solidarity 2 formulaic speech Sue says to Fred Make yourself at home while she finishes dressing for a party intending to be friendly (solidarity). Fred helps himself to a drink from the fridge turns on the TV and sits with his feet propped up on the coffee table. When Sue comes out and sees him shes irate because she feels Fred took advantage of her (power). Fred says You told me to make myself at home. Tannen found systematic differences between mens and womens speech Womens higher involvement style is more geared to solidarity Mens lower involvement style is more geared to power 157 Contextualization Cues Prosody repetition formulaicity code-switching simultaneous speech etc characterize speech styles degrees of involvement/considerateness signal power solidarity dominance and subordination closene ss and distance 158 contextualization cues mark personal style distinguish different types of discourse foreground the form of speech itself Tannen describes contextualization cues as Poetics of Speech particularly repetition and formulaicity as expressive devices 159 Repetition 1 repeats which perform a specific operation on their original repetition which only contributes to cohesion repetition to ensure coherence I gave up my permanent coughs my permanent job here. H through Bittman in the form of legal fees for distribution to these people. then youve got it. P in the form of legal fees. I see. 160 Repetition 2 repeats spotlight their originals and perform some operation on them Ste one two three four five six eleven eight nine ten. Sue eleven eight nine ten Ste eleven eight nine ten. Sue eleven Ste seven eight nine ten. Sue thats better. P he has turned it over to the Grand Jury. E turned it over to the Justice Department. A repeat can signal appreciation of its original often called savoring. Rog hes a politician. Al yes. Im a politician. I think Im greater than all of you. Rog I beg to differ with you. Al hehh heh hhh I beg to differ with you. Note so-called laugh tokens characteristic of Jeffersons transcription style. 161 Repetition 3 A repeat can affirm its original say after a collaborative reference A she bought a chest of drawers from um whats that gals name just went back to Michigan. Helen um B oh I know who you mean Brady Brady. A yeah Helen Brady. B m-hm. Repeat can go on to expand and amplify the original. E and this was in a stone castle you see. Bloody cold. F a stone castle and excessively bloody cold. Repeat with negation serves to deny the original. G they go in the tavern. You cant go in there an- H you can go in there too. Repeat a phrase or sentence to highlight it P he wanted the operation to fail. and he admitted it. Admitted it. 162 Repetition 4 Mark you know what happened to my one of my aunts friends out in Iowa like when- when she was younger she had a headgear from braces and these two girls were wrestling around just playing around wrestling. and one girl pulled her headgear off her mouth and let it snap back. and it slid up her face and stuck in her eyes and blinded her. Jacob wow. Mark Isnt that horrid thats horrid. Jacob when my- Mark blinded her for life. isnt that horrid. thats just- I mean just from goofing around just from screwing a little bit of screwing around. 163 Repetition 5 A yeh I was in the boy scouts at the time B and we was doing the 50-yard dash C racing D but we was at the pier marked off E and so we was doing the 50-yard dash F there was about eight or ten of us you know going down coming back G and going down the third time I caught the cramps H and I started yelling help! I but the fellows didnt believe me you know J they thought I was just trying to catch up because I was going on or slowing down K so all of them kept going L they leave me M and so I started going down N scoutmaster was up there O he was watching me 164 Formulaicity Formulaicity recognizable collocations preformed--perhaps idiomaticphrases recurrence of patterns created within a text or discourse (Tannens spontaneous formulaicity). Formulaic Prefaces and Closings Prefaces it was really funny youll never believe what happened Closings and I lived to tell about it and here I am 165 Spontaneous formulaicity 1 Brianne we had a section on figure drawing. and we had a model. Addie uh-huh. Brianne it was really weird. we had her come Addie chuckles Brianne it was just about two weeks ago. and then we did some figure drawing giggling. Addie laughs Brianne yep. and it was really weird because um then like just last week we went downtown one night to see a movie. Addie uh-huh. Brianne and we were sitting in McDonalds waiting for our movie. and we saw her in the McDonalds Addie laughs 166 Spontaneous formulaicity 2 Brianne and it was like thats our model laughing Addie laughs Brianne in clothes laughing uh we were like Addie laughing oh my God. Brianne oh wow. it was- Addie lau ghs Brianne it was really weird. Addie laughs Brianne but it was her. laughs Addie oh no. weird. Brianne I mean thats weird when you run into somebody in Chicago. Addie m-hm yeah. 167 Oral Narrative Oral Narrative is
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