Work for many years sending remittances home to their families especially if married.
If able to stay in the developed country for a while they may then send for their wives and children to join them.
Enclave immigrant neighborhoods.
Very limited assimilation because culture an identity are very difficult to change.
Problems begin to surface when the children grow up.
Caught between two worlds and not belonging to either.
3 Concepts Linked to Migration
Moving from a source to an eventual permanent destination.
A Third World rural agricultural family may first move to the nearest town.
Becomes part of the wage economy at the lowest level.
After gaining experience the family may next move to the nearest city.
Later on to the provincial capital each time gaining a little in job opportunity experience and salary.
Eventually may move the national capital or major port city.
More competitive situation but is better prepared to handle this.
Opportunities / Competition Village 4 Concepts Linked to Migration
A major source of information about potential destinations comes by word of mouth from family and friends.
Involves the sequential migration of kinship or friendship groups.
Very common in the Third World.
Initially one or two may go usually the most motivated best educated.
Encourages a few more relatives or friends to follow.
Rely upon them to teach the ropes in the new situation get leads on jobs etc.
Eventually larger numbers will follow this same pattern.
Will often replicate the familiar network of the home region.
Many large Third World cities have such residential patterns.
City 5 Concepts Linked to Migration
Distance - decay factor
Inverse relationship between
Distance separating two places.
Amount of information received by each about the other.
Information decreases as distance increases.
Direct relationship between
Closer destinations may often have an advantage.
Population size can often overcome distance decay.
A larger city can overcome distance decay and pull in migrants from wider areas.
6 Concepts Linked to Migration
Area from which a destination draws its migrants.
Closely related to the distance-decay factor.
Larger cities have much more extensive migration fields than do smaller ones.
Burlington VT The region and the State.
New York The world.
7 Concepts Linked to Migration
Pattern in which as one group of migrants moves out of an area another enters to take its place.
Often related to the improvement in welfare.
Occur in American major cities.
Downtown Suburbs 8 Types of Migration 1
The mover still maintains roots at the source.
Difficult to quantify.
Usually done on a daily basis.
Often consolidated in one trip with several stops.
Tourism or business travel.
Consolidation Shopping Leisure Work Education Vacation Permanent place of residence 9 Types of Migration 1
A type of temporary migration.
Associated with agricultural work.
The migrant follows the harvest of various crops moving from one place to another each time.
Very common in the US Southwest (Mexican farm workers) and in Western Europe (Eastern European farm workers).
Fall / Winter 10 US Immigration and Emigration by Decade 1901-2000 (in 1000s) 1 11 Slaves Reaching British North America 1601-1867 (in 1000s) 1 12 Mexican Migration to the United States 1
The Bracero Program (1943-1964)
From the Spanish Brazos meaning people working with their arms.
The Mexico-US migration pattern is a rather recent one (mid 20th century).
Established during WW II (1943).
Allows Mexican farm workers to work temporarily on farms in Texas California and the Southwest USA.
Make up for the labor shortage caused by the war (the USA had over 11 million people in uniform).
The program worked well and helped both countries.
About 5 million Mexican immigrants entered the US.
13 Mexican Migration to the United States 1
The USA got the labor it needed without making a permanent commitment to admit the workers as residents.
Took 10 of earnings to be deposited in saving accounts in Mexico.
To favor the return of labor.
Mexico earned foreign exchange
Remittances sent back home by the workers and solved some of its own employment problems.
The third most important source of income for Mexico after oil and tourism.
14 Legal Mexican Immigration to the US 1901-1998 1 15 Mexican Migration to the United States 1
The Bracero Program established a pattern of Mexican migration to the USA.
When the program was discontinued in 1964 the migratory flow didnt stop.
It continues today in both legal and illegal forms.
20 of all immigration is from Mexico.
Vast numbers of undocumented aliens many of whom come simply to work with no intention of staying permanently.
50 of all illegal immigrants from Mexico.
They return home regularly especially during winter (low agricultural season).
Stricter border controls have made illegal immigrants less likely to return to Mexico once they have reached the US.
16 Mexican Migration to the United States 1
Recent US immigration legislation
Sought to regulate illegal migration by focusing upon the employers who might hire them.
Currently employers found with illegal aliens working for them are assessed stiff penalties.
Provided an offer of amnesty to illegals who could prove that they had been in the country a substantial amount of time.
Between 1.5 and 2 million persons took advantage of this opportunity to regularize their migratory status.
17 Illegal Aliens in the United States by Country of Origin 1996 (in 1000s) 1 18 Apprehensions at the US-Mexico Border 1994-2000 1 19 Guest Workers in Western Europe 2
Economic boom of the 1960s and early 1970s.
Labor shortages notably because of the impacts of WWII.
Workers were invited to Germany Switzerland the Netherlands Belgium France Sweden and a few other northern and western European states.
Recruited primarily from Spain Portugal Italy Greece Turkey Yugoslavia Morocco Algeria and Tunisia.
Variety of guest worker programs to fill jobs no longer needed or wanted by nationals.
These programs did not intend that the workers would stay permanently in the host country.
20 Guest Workers in Western Europe 2
Economy began to decline during the 1970
Germany ended its program in 1974.
Most of the workers no longer intended to go home.
Many had children who had grown up in the new society.
Many people were forced to return to the source country when their work permits expired.
Some remain and constitute minority populations in countries accustomed to high degrees of homogeneity.
Caused a variety of social problems in many countries
Some have no provisions for foreigners to eventually become citizens.
Situation was aggravated by the collapse of the Soviet Union and massive immigration from Eastern Europe in the 1990s.
21 Population Movements in Europe 2 High Income Country Massive Population Movement Former Soviet Bloc Countries 2.4 M UK 1.9 M Germany 6.7 M France 3.6 M Switz. 1.2 M Italy 1 M Former Yugoslavia 600000 Turkey 2 M Guest workers Most in Germany North Africa 2 M 22 Guest Workers in Western Europe 2
Aging of the European population would require a new wave of immigration.
The European Union would need 1.6 million new immigrants a years between 2000 and 2050 just to keep stable the current working population.
To keep the dependency ratio stable the European Union would need 13.5 million new immigrants a year.
23 Persian Gulf States 3
Oil-rich countries of the Gulf area
5 small Kuwait Oman the United Arab Emirates Qatar and Bahrain.
1 larger Saudi Arabia
Capital-rich but labor-poor (rent economies).
Before recent oil booms (1970).
Underdeveloped both economically and from a human resource perspective (education) and lacked infrastructure.
Begun to invest heavily in their own development.
Creation of several jobs in government services and industry.
High profile jobs occupied by nationals (qualified or not).
Lack a skilled labor force.
24 Persian Gulf States 3
Solution to labor shortages.
Importing labor from other countries including Egypt India Pakistan the Philippines Iran and Lebanon.
From USA European states and Japan.
Many stateless Palestinians also have found jobs there.
Foreigners outnumber nationals in some cases by as much as 4 to 1.
Heavy reliance upon foreign labor.
Little incentive for nationals to get qualifications.
Political instability is a potential threat.
Many disenfranchised persons with no rights in the host country.
25 Persian Gulf States 3
Presence potentially radical Palestinians and Shiite Iranians
Two Islamic groups who may challenge the conservative Sunni Moslem regimes.
The national population
Supported by oil revenues from the state and have little need to work.
Diminishes incentive to upgrade skill levels which might necessitate prolonging the dependence on foreign labor.
The fall of oil prices in the 1990s
Created unemployment problems among the nationals.
Triggered Islamic nationalistic movements.
26 Share of Foreign Population and Workers in Persian Gulf States 2002 3 27
The Maid Trade
Large movements of female workers from poorer to the richer countries of Asia and the Middle East.
Often managed by government accredited labor agencies (Indonesia and Philippines)
Charge fees for training passport issuance visas and transportation.
Saudi Arabia has about 200000 Indonesian maids (Islam).
Malaysia has about 160000.
Many cases of abuse and rape.
28 The Maid Trade 3 Japan Rich Persian Gulf States HK Thailand India and Bangladesh Philippines Malaysia and Singapore Indonesia Country of origin Country of destination 29 Refugees Receiving U.N. Assistance World Total 1961-2003 (in millions) 2 30 The Refugee Status 4
Possible outcomes of the refugee experience
Voluntary repatriation to the source country
Usually necessitates a change in the conditions which caused the refugee flows in the first place (e.g. the end of a civil war).
Resettlement in second asylum country
Most refugees flee from their homeland to an adjacent country.
Indo-Chinese refugees fled to Thailand Malaysia Hong Kong or other nearby states.
Offered permanent asylum by second countries such as the USA France Canada or Australia.
Local integration in the country of first asylum
Requires approval from the host country government.
Enables the refugees to participate in the host society.
Inclusion of refugees into a states national development plans.
31 The Refugee Status 4
Refugee relief or maintenance.
Provision of emergency supplies such as food shelter clothing and protection.
Frequently this involves the creation of refugee camps.
Can give rise to a dependency situation in which refugees might lose the initiative to become self- sufficient.
Forced return of the refugees to their source country.
Illegal under international law but increasingly frequent.
32 Refugees 4
Soviet relocation of ethnic groups (1936-1952)
More than 3 million people were deported.
Along the Soviet Unions western borders.
Dumped thousands of kilometers away in eastern and central Siberia or in the Central Asian republics.
20 major groups suffered in this way.
8 entire nations were removed from their ancestral homelands
1 was non-Orthodox Christian (the Volga Germans).
1 Buddhist (the Kalmyks).
6 Muslim (Chechens Ingush Karachai Balkars Crimean Tatars and Meskhetians).
Russians are experiencing resentment in former Soviet Republics.
33 Nations Deported by the Soviet Union during WWII 4 34 Refugees 4
In 1959 forces led by Castro overthrew a repressive US-supported regime.
More than 500000 mostly to southern Florida with smaller numbers elsewhere.
Granted refugee recognition so long as they do not have a criminal record.
Opposition policy of the US towards to the Castro regime.
Many hundreds of thousands with at least 200000 coming to the US.
Most of the others moving to neighboring countries in Central America notably Honduras and Costa Rica.
35 Latin American Refugees 4
From 1979-1990 fleeing the Sandinistas were also usually granted refugee status here.
The US opposed that regime.
At least one-half million with many estimates ranging up toward the one million mark.
The largest number are now in the USA but Honduras Mexico Canada Costa Rica Guatemala Nicaragua and Belize have also been destinations.
Fleeing harsh living conditions and political turmoil.
36 Refugees 4
Palestinians represented the first large group of the new refugees when they were left stateless shortly after WW II.
Creation of the new state of Israel.
Since no political solution has been achieved for their situation.
Repatriation is not an option - there is no Palestinian state to return to.
Arab host states have resisted long-term integration strategies preferring to maintain the group as refugees.
Use their presence to fan the political flames against Israel on occasion.
This was particularly true prior to the 1973 war.
37 Refugees 4
The perceived hopelessness of their situation has resulted in the radicalization.
The number of Palestinians in Israel increased as a result of the annexation of the West Bank (formerly in Jordan) during the 1967 war.
Anger has flared up in recent years as the bloody Intifada.
Arab states have supported the Palestinian cause but have been less ready to act on its behalf.
Palestinian to support Iraq in the Gulf War of 1991 has further eroded their support among many Arab states.
Israel undertook settlement and refoulement policies that have exacerbated the situation.
38 Who is Free 4 Jewish Child Guarded by Israeli soldier West Bank Settlement 39 Refugees 4
The boat people from Vietnam
Captured world attention since their migrations began during the late 1970s.
Emigration of many thousands of South Vietnamese following the collapse of the regime in 1975.
Repression by the new government.
Attempts at re-education for those who had been affiliated with the former regime.
Main destination countries
USA Canada Australia and France.
Countries that had been involved with the Vietnam War.
With the reduction in East-West tensions there is less willingness to accept the Vietnamese as political refugees.
40 Refugees 4
Receiving states such as Hong Kong are now considering the boat people to be economic refugees.
Forcibly returning many of them to Vietnam.
It is illegal under international law to forcibly repatriate refugees.
Some 500000 Cambodians live outside their country.
Most are in refugee camps in neighboring Thailand.
Many have lived there since the rule of the Khmer Rouge regime of 1975-79.
20-25 of all Cambodians were killed.
Efforts to rid the country of all vestiges of colonialism and Western influence.
The excesses of the regime led to an invasion by Vietnam in 1979 which toppled Pol Pot.
41 Refugees 4
Province had a 2.2 million population.
90 are Muslims of Albanian origin.
Part of the former Ottoman Empire.
Collapse of the former Yugoslavia has led to the resurgence of ethnic conflicts.
The Republic of Serbia (Belgrade) has a Muslim Albanian minority.
The Province of Kosovo has been emptied by Serb forces.
About 2 million became refugees.
Into Albania Macedonia and Montenegro.
Removing IDs and destroying records.
About 10000 dead (genocide).
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