Institutions set up to manage recovery- have not led to sustained national and local capacities for disaster deduction
Opportunities for Transformative Recovery require upscaling of small innovative initiatives led by civil society organisations in the larger reconstruction plans which do not always happen
3 Rebuilding Risk/ Rerofitting the Reconstruction 4 Gujarat Earthquake 2001 Rehabilitation the tyranny of rush
1.5 billion USD programme to be disbursed rapidly political pressures to speed the benefits to affected householders
Cash disbursement without hazard resistant technology dissemination
Danger of rebuilding previous vulnerabilities
Monitoring feed back by Civil society networks (setus funded by DFID USAID SDC and Netherlands brought about midterm corrections)
5 Indonesia Resettlement plans new risks
Massive destruction of settlements more than 400000 people displaced
Plans to relocate randomly dispersed IDP camps into 24 interim shelter camps
Site selection creating new risks as clearing hill rain forests
Opportunity for zone planning on basis of environmental considerations need to be driven by local participative processes
Gujarat Civil society networks launched participative process of consulting villages and reversed GOG policy to relocate villages If Recovery plans for Shelter are to lead to community resilience needs time process and participation
6 (No Transcript) 7 Indonesia Damage and Needs Assessment Methodology Formulating recovery programmes based on consensus and stakeholder participation
Assessment driven by the need to secure donor commitments
Limited possibilities of community and local stake holders consultations
Multiple agencies appealed for similar sectors
Difficult to ensure that global technical skills of will come together seamlessly to serve Aceh Recovery (these were not part of the sectoral needs assessments)
Highlights the need to establish predefined roles as per comparative advantages through a shared commonly owned needs assessment methodology
8 Capacity for Managing Recovery
UN system Inadequate resources for RECOVERY in UNCT
absence of predictable surge as in UNDAC as post disaster Recovery programmes swell 8/9 times normal developmental operations BCPR UNDP supports co-ordination through Trac resources not a predictable UN/ International system mechanism
National actors Create para-statal to manage huge Recovery programmes/ not sustained after life of project (MEERPGSDMA Office of National Reconstruction Jamaica)
Indonesia set reconstruction team in BAPPENAS with 10 sectoral teams
Linkages to decentralised BAPPEDAS and district Administration complex as all developmental resources have been delegated to District Administration
Danger of turning into parallel government structures that overlap functions and mandates and bypass accountability and control mechanisms
9 Resource vs. local absorptive capacity Indonesia and Gujarat
Indonesia Huge resource commitments for Flash Appeal 350 millionn USD in flash 3 .9 billion reconstruction plan at CGI many International NGO have upwards of few hundred million USD
However absorptive capacity constraints local Govt NGO civil servants already weakened by conflict decimated by Tsunami
Possibilities to empower the people of Aceh and Local govt. of Aceh Indonesia need a deep consultative process with local communities upscale innovations initiated by civil society organisations
Gujarat Earthquake Gap at sub-district level in view of Huge magnitude of Funds to be channelised by Govt WB ADB at the Sub District level
Need to strengthen Institutional Capacity at the cluster of 15 villages --Sub Center level to absorb development funding transparency of expenditures grievance redressal information sharing
Setting up Setus- Bridges SDC USAID and DFID later up scaled under WB funded Rehab Programmes
10 Tsunami Early Warning vs Multi Hazard risk reduction
Indonesian plan is based on science seismographs to monitor earthquakes buoys to monitor wave movements satellite communications to trigger siren warning of Tsunami in remote communities Aim to reduce dependence on human communication chain by making technology communicate to people directly
However established best practice reveals community based preparedness and awareness campaigns local community based mechanisms to trigger response work robustly
Gujarat Shift from less frequent earthquake to more probable Droughts multi hazard assessment and risk management Planning
Multi-Hazard prone-drought cyclones
Drought impoverished cyclone devastated families do not have livelihood security to build earthquake houses
Comprehensive development plan ecological restoration drought proofing sustainable livelihoods
11 Indonesia Tsunami opportunity for transformative recovery
Aceh has 20 year old separatist movement run by GAM GOI has invested heavily in military security
Destruction of Police stations courts and death of police personnel Possibilities for reducing high cost military security and substituting community policing rule of law institutions based on traditional courts
Death of civil Servants recruitment for Acehenese open transparent
Capacity enhancement of Distt/ sub district offices by training new civil service and providing technical support for damage assessments infrastructure and settlement planning risk reduction through mitigation measures in housing and spatial planning early warning and conflict sensitive development practices
Progress in Peace talks indicator of opportunity to rebuild with peace
12 Key Challenges for International Community/ UN
Strengthening international and national capacities to deliver recovery strategies and programmes informed of lessons learnt from the past
Institutional arrangements to support local empowerment strengthening local absorptive capacities
Recovery tool kit commonly shared Needs Assessment methodology to derive transitional recovery needs with associated risk mitigation components with division of roles as per comparative advantages and training in these tools
Predictable partnershipsneed for pre-established partnerships across UN agencies IFIs key government line ministries
13 Defining recovery
International Strategy for Disaster Reduction (ISDR) definition decisions and actions taken after a disaster with a view to restoring or improving the pre-disaster living conditions of the stricken community while encouraging and facilitating necessary adjustments to reduce disaster risk. Recovery from a disaster is thus primarily about
Shifting focus from saving lives to restoring livelihoods
Effectively preventing the recurrence of crisis situations
Harnessing conditions for future development
Building on national capacities
Determining/addressing root causes and vulnerabilities
14 Alternate Paths of Transition from Relief to Development A Model MDGs Sustainable Development MDGs by 2015 Connection Recovery to SHD Pre disaster HPI Aceh Post Tsunami HPI Aceh PRE- DisasterHDI( poverty index) Human Poverty Index Poverty as a proxy MDGs Recovery Community Govt ownership with vulnerability reduction conflict prevention builds Community resilience Ideal Recovery Continuum of Relief and Recovery Uneven recovery( cotracter driven) Unsustainable recovery(siesmically unsafe housing) TIME R (ideal) R (delayed) 2015 Humanitarian Response Transition Recovery 15 International Recovery Platform (IRP) proposed at WCDR Kobe
The IRP to function as an international repository of knowledge and clearing-house mechanism for recovery that currently does not exist within the UN system.
The IRP will promote a shared vision and common approach and strategies for its members
16 IMMEDIATE OBJECTIVES
To provide a coordination framework and network for post-disaster recovery in support of the Resident Coordinator system and disaster affected donors IFIs and others
To facilitate the dissemination of lessons learned and the development of common tools and mechanisms
To provide advice on the formulation of post-disaster recovery planning and programming with risk reduction approach
To strengthen national capacities for post-disaster recovery ensuring links with longer term development programming
To facilitate South-South co-operation between disaster prone countries utilize the accumulated know-how of these countries in post-disaster recovery.
17 Interlinked service lines of IRP Recovery operations occur with lack of capacity and knowledge tools in absence of a concerted recovery platform 18 1- Advocacy and Knowledge Management
Recovery needs assessment and planning tools
The systematization of recovery experiences
Information Management tools
19 2)Capacity Building
Activities to build the capacities for post-disaster recovery with an emphasis on human resource development within UN Country Teams as well as national and international counterparts.
Key human resources trained in post-disaster recovery concepts and skills.
Global network of experts and global databases for recovery experts established.
Training curricula manuals and modules produced.
20 3) Enhanced Recovery Operations
Provision of common tools and mechanisms for operational activities in recovery
South-South cooperation amongst disaster prone countries that have world-class capacities in this area
Enhanced capacity of UN Country teams and national and local authorities able to develop recovery plans that incorporate risk reduction and response preparedness elements
Technical surge capacity support services available to UN Country teams and national and local authorities to provide technical assistance to post-disaster recovery operations.
Advisory services to UN Country teams and national and local authorities to develop resource mobilisation strategies consistent with requirements of IFIs including regional banks.
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