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Impressionism "All that is solid melts into air" Marx and Engels, Communist Manifesto, 1848 "Capture

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How can it have been avant-garde when it is so easy to like, not at all 'shocking' ... (left) Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (1749 1832) Color Theory, 1805-1829 ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Impressionism "All that is solid melts into air" Marx and Engels, Communist Manifesto, 1848 "Capture


1
Impressionism"All that is solid
melts into air" (Marx and Engels, Communist
Manifesto, 1848)"Capture your Moments"
(Kodak ad, 1888)
2
  • IMPRESSIONISM Paris, the 1870s
  • WHAT WAS SO MODERN ABOUT IT?
  • How can it have been avant-garde when it is so
    easy to like, not at all shocking?

3
(left) Pierre-Auguste Renoir, Portrait of Claude
Monet. 1875, o/c, Musée d'Orsay, Paris (right)
Claude Monet. Self-Portrait. 1886, o/c, private
collection, Paris(center) Edouard Manet,
Portrait of Monet, 1880, india ink on paper,
Musée Marmottan
4
(left) Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (17491832)
Color Theory, 1805-1829(center) Michel-Eugène
Chevreul, color wheel, c.18601888First Kodak
Camera
5
Claude Monet Northern Coast of France (La
Manche, or English Channel),
6
James Whistler (American expatriate in London) -
Harmony in Blue and Silver, Trouville, 1865
7
James Whistler, Nocturne in Black and Gold The
Falling Rocket, 1875Oil on wood, 23 3/4 x 18 3/8
in. (60.3 x 46.6 cm) Detroit Institute of
Artshttp//blogs.princeton.edu/wri152-3/rpower/a
rchives/001951.html Information re. 1877 slander
suit against John RuskinI have seen, and
heard, much of cockney impudence before now but
never expected a coxcomb to ask two hundred
guineas for flinging a pot of paint in the
publics face - Ruskin, 1877 review
8
Gustave Courbet, Low tide, Trouville, 1865
9
Eugène Boudin (French, 1824-1898), (top)
Vacationers on the Beach at Trouville,
1864(bottom) Boudin,. The Beach at Deauville,
1863, oil on canvas Painting out of doors en
plein air
10
(top) Claude Monet, The Beach at St-Address,
1867Bottom) Boudin, View of Portrieux,1865
11
  • Precursor painters sources of Impressionism

12
John Constable (English), The Haywain, 1821
13
Constable, Cloud Study, 1822, Oil on paper laid
on board,12 x 19 1/4 inchesCourtauld Institute
Galleries, London
14
Joseph Mallord William Turner (English,
1775-1851), Rain, Steam Speed The Great
Western Railroad, exhibited in 1844 at the Royal
Academy, London, oil on canvas. Romantic
landscape painter studied by Claude Monet in
London in1870 (in refuge from the Franco-Prussian
war.
15
Théodore Rousseau (French, 1812-1867) Forest of
Fontainebleau, Morning, 1850Barbison School
16
Eugene Delacroix (French Romantic painter),
(top) Tiger Hunt, 1854(bottom) Odalisque,
1855, oil on wood with source photographic
studyGestural painting and optical theory.
Orientalist, not a Painter of Modern Life
Delacroix, an alchemist of color, miraculous,
profound, mysterious, sensual, awesome explosive
color and subdued color, a penetrating harmony.
The gestures of man and animal. The scowl of the
beast, the snufflings of animality. -
Charles Baudelaire
17
(left) Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres, Madame
Leblanc 1823 Oil on canvas. Metropolitan MA, New
York City Eugène Delacroix. Self Portrait.
c.1837. oïl on canvas. Louvre, Paris
18
Claude Monet, Luncheon on the Grass, 1866
19
(left) Claude Monet, Dejeuner sur lherbe
(Luncheon on the Grass), 1866, Oil on canvas.
Edouard Manet, Dejeuner sur lherbe, 1863
20
Claude Monet, La Grenouillere 1869, oil on canvas
75x100cmMetropolitan Museum of Art, NY
21
Claude Monet, La Grenouillère, 1869 Auguste
Renoir, La Grenouillère ("The Frog Pond")
1869Painted side by side at Bougival on the
Seine river
22
Monet, The Thames at Westminster, 1871, Oil on
canvas, 47 x 72.5 cm (18 1/2 x 28 1/2"), National
Gallery, London
23
First Impressionist Exhibition 15 April 1874
Exhibition of the Société Anonyme of Painters,
Sculptors, and Printmakers(left) Nadar
(Gaspard-Felix Tournachon) (1820-1910) Nadar¹s
Studio at 35 Boulevard des Capucines (right)
Claude Monet, Boulevard des Capucines, 1873 (31
1/4 x 23 1/4") A new view one of Emperor
Louis-Napoleon and Baron Haussmanns new
boulevards
24
Edward Anthony (American, 18181888) Henry T.
Anthony (American, 18141884) Broadway on a Rainy
Day, 1859 Albumen silver prints from glass
negatives Each 2 13/16 x 2 13/16 in. (7.2 x 7.2
cm) Stereograph. (right) Claude Monet, Boulevard
des Capucines, 1873 (31 1/4 x 23 1/4")
Compare Stop-action or "instantaneous"
stereographic views by Anthony brothers, New
Yorks first manufacturers of cameras and
photographic supplies, with Monets flickering
impression.
25
Claude Monet, Impression, Sunrise 1873
26
Monet, Railroad Bridge at Argenteuil,
1874Anonymous, photo of the Argenteuil Railway
Bridge, c. 1895
  • The Impressionist Eye is, in short, the most
    advanced eye in human evolution
  • Jules Laforgue

27
Monet, The Gare Saint-Lazare, 1877, National
Gallery, London
28
(left) Katsushika Hokusai, South Wind, Clear
Dawn, from Thirty Six Views of Mount Fuji, c.
1830-2, color woodblock, 10 x 15(right) Claude
Monet, Haystack, Sunset, 1891, oil on canvas, 28
x 36in, MFA BostonMonets 23 views of haystacks
(1891-2) under various light conditions is
thought to be influenced by Hokusais 36 views of
Mount Fuji. Monet owned a copy of this print by
Hokusai.
People are not sufficiently aware of how much
our contemporary landscape Artists have borrowed
from these pictures, especially Monet, whom I
often encounter at Bings in the little attic
where Levy is in charge of the Japanese
prints. Edmund de Goncourt, 1892
29
Monet, Rouen Cathedral, the West Portal, Dull
Weather dated 1894, painted 1892Oil on canvas 39
3/8 x 25 5/8 in. (100 x 65 cm) Musee d'Orsay,
Parishttp//www.learn.columbia.edu/monet/swf/
Click for information about Monets Rouen
Cathedral series, 1892-4
30
Monet, Rouen Cathedral, the West Portal and
Saint-Romain Tower, Full Sunlight, Harmony in
Blue and Gold, dated 1894, painted 1893, Oil on
canvas, 42 1/8 x 28 3/4 in. Musee d'Orsay, Paris
31
Claude Monet, Water Lilies (The Clouds) 1903 Oil
on canvas (29 3/8 x 41 7/16 in.) Private
collection
32
Monet's home and garden at Giverny(below right)
Studio constructed for the Nympheas (Water
lilies) Series
33
(No Transcript)
34
(left) Utagawa Hiroshige, Wisteria Blooms Over
Water at Kameido, from One Hundred Views of Edo,
c. 1857, color woodblock 14 x 9 in. Brooklyn
MA(below) Claude Monet, Water Lilies and
Japanese Bridge, 1899, oil on canvas, Princeton
University
35
While the Orangerie museum Paris was rebuilt
around them for six years, Monet's waterlily
paintings, too large to move, had to remain in
place in the oval rooms built for them in 1927.
(NYTimes, May 14, 2006)
36
(left) photoportrait of Pierre-Auguste Renoir
Frédéric Bazille, Portrait of Pierre-Auguste
Renoir 1867, Oil on canvas, (37 x 32 1/3 in)
Musee d'Orsay, Paris
37
Claude Monet, La Grenouillère, 1869 Auguste
Renoir, La Grenouillère ("The Frog Pond")
1869Painted side by side at Bougival on the
Seine river
38
Renoir, The Dance at the Moulin de La Galette
(Montmartre), 1876
39
(left) Auguste Renoir, Torso of a Woman in
Sunlight, 1876 (Impressionism, considered first
modern, democratic art movement, born out of the
class revolution that brought down the Ancien
Régime) Hedonism and veiled eroticism(right)
Jean-Honoré Fragonard, Bathers, 1756 (Rococo,
considered the cultural epitome of French
aristocracy, the Ancien Régime swept away by the
class revolutions beginning in 1789) Hedonism and
veiled eroticism
40
(right) Berthe Morisot (French, 1841-95), Self
Portrait, 1885 (left) Edouard Manet, Portrait
of Berthe Morisot, 1872
41
Morisot, The Cradle (sister Edma and child),
1872, o/c (Morisot married in 1874)Exhibited in
the First Impressionist exhibition. Morisot
exhibited in 7 of the 8 Impressionist
exhibitions.
42
Berthe Morisot, Hide-and-Seek, 1873, Oil on
canvas, 45 x 55 cm (17 3/4 x 21 5/8") The models
are Berthe Morisot's sister Edma and Edma's
daughter Jeanne.Berthe
43
Morisot, The Wet Nurse Angèle Feeding Julie
Manet, 1880. Private collection
44
Mary Cassatt (American, 1845-1926), Little Girl
in a Blue Armchair, 1978, oil on canvas, 35 X 51
(88.9 x 129.5 cm). Point of view, photographic
cropping, sensuous immediacy modern painting
45
(left) Auguste Renoir, The Loge, 1874 (right)
Mary Cassatt, In the Loge, 1880
46
Mary Cassatt, In the Omnibus, drypoint and
aquatint in colors, series of 10, 1890-91Suzuki
Harunobu, (Japanese Ukiyo-e printmaker)
1724-1770) Women and Child, woodblock print,
c.1750Ukiyo-e prints were key source for
modernist form - flatness, rejection of
Renaissance illusionism - but also in content
daily life of the middle and working classes.
47
Women's Building, Sophie Hayden, architect World
Columbian Exhibition of 1893 in Chicago,
featuring Cassatts Modern Woman mural 12- 58
(lost)
48
Young Women Picking Fruit of Knowledge and
Science, 1892 Womens Building, Chicago Worlds
Fair
49
(below) Edgar Degas, The Tub, 1886, pastel on
paper, 23 x 32(left) Katsushika Hokusai, Women
at the Public Bath, from the Manga vol. I, c.
1820, color woodblock, 7 x 4 In the manga,
Degas said, he found relief from Western arts
obsession with the female form divine.
European artists continually borrowed motifs from
the manga.
Both subject matter contemporary woman bathing
and style that was considered radically
anti-academic and modern, are directly influenced
by Japanese art.
50
Motion Photography and the Beginnings of Cinema
Eadweard Muybridge, 1879
51
Eadweard Muybridge (Edward James Muggeridge,
British 1830-1904), AKA Helios San Francisco
Landscape photographer, Valley of the Yosemite,
ca.1867
  • Muybridges five-month trip to the Yosemite
    Valley in 1867 yielded 260 published views, 160
    of them stereographs. His were among the most
    celebrated images taken of the Valley.

52
Eadweard Muybridge (Edward James Muggeridge,
British 1830-1904), Galloping Horse, Motion
Study Sallie Gardner, owned by Leland Stanford,
running at 1.40 gait over the Palo Alto track,
June 19, 1879, wet plate collotype, a sequence of
photographs with 12 cameras
  • Muybridge began the project in 1872. In 1878, he
    succeeded in taking a sequence of photographs
    with 12 cameras that captured the moment when the
    animals hooves were tucked under its belly.
    Publication of these photographs made Muybridge
    an international celebrity.

53
Edgar Degas, At the Races, 18771880, oil on
canvas, Musée d'Orsay, Paris.
54
Eadweard Muybridge, The Zoopraxiscope, projector
presented in autumn of 1879 The private
gathering that watched the first Zoopraxiscope
projections at Mayfield Grange, the home of
Muybridge's sponsor Leland Stanford at Palo Alto
farm, in the autumn of 1879 has the distinction
of being one of the earliest motion picture
audiences.
55
Zoopraxiscope disc and detail of stencil
56
Eadweard Muybridge, Animal Locomotion Man
Shoveling (Self Portrait), 1895University of
Pennsylvania
57
Thomas Eakins (American Realist Painter,
1844-1916), George Reynolds Seven Photographs,
1883, albumen print, Pennsylvania Academy of Fine
Arts (lower left) Motion Study male running
jump to left, ca. 1885, (lower right) Motion
Study female nude, blindfolded, walking to left,
ca. 1885
Eakins approached the human figure with the
analytical eye of a scientist.
58
(left) Thomas Eakins, The Swimming Hole, oil on
canvas, 1884-85 (right) Eakins Eakins's Students
at the Site for Swimming, albumen print, ca.1884
59
Thomas Eakins, Max Schmitt in a Single Scull,
1871, oil on canvas, c.32X46 (82x117cm),
Metropolitan Museum, NYC
60
Etienne-Jules Marey (French Physiologist
18301904), Photographic Gun camera with a
rotating plate capable of taking rapid sequence
of separate images. (below) Marey, Pelicans in
Flight, c.1882
  • Marey saw Muybridges motion photographs when
    they were published in Paris in 1878.
    Muybridges multi-camera system wasnt scientific
    enough for Marey.

61
Marey, Chronophotographic study of Man Pole
Vaulting, 1890 -1891, albumen silver print
  • Marey used dry photographic plates, faster than
    the wet plates Muybridge used, and an ordinary
    camera with its lens left open. Behind the lens,
    Marey put a rotating metal disk that had from one
    to ten slots cut into it at even intervals. As
    the subject, dressed
  • in white, moved in front of a black background,
    the rotating shutter exposed the glass plate,
    creating a sequence of images.

62
Thomas Eakins, Motion Study using Mareys wheel
camera, Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts, 1885
63
Edgar Degas (French Realist/Impressionist Painter
and Sculptor, 1834-1917)Frieze of Dancers, 1895,
oil on canvas, 27 3/4 x 79Multiple views of a
single figure, an approach that violated the
traditional notion that a painting must represent
a unity of time, place, and viewpoint
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