1. As children learn words they learn rules for putting them together.
2. Cooing and Babbling are spontaneous .
Institutionalized children take longer to talk then one raised by a family.
3. First words are concrete.
Identifies words with situations and functions
Ie. Table eat Table- chair
3 Theories contd
Word order develops
Open words they can be used alone
Baby doll dog cat etc.
Cannot be used alone
Ie. Green my
Word order is learned by parroting adult sentences.
2 ½ - 3 years old
May say I digged a hole (apply rules for making nouns plural not realizing they are incorrect)
4 Personality Development
Newborn is completely helpless and yet utterly selfish.
Needs must be satisfied
Egocentricity vs. complete dependency
First conflict a child must resolve.
Establish feelings about the world and image of themselves called personality.
5 Parenting Styles
Socialization shaped by cultural values.
Distinct European-American parenting styles
Related to young childrens social and emotional development.
6 Limitations of Parenting Studies
Based on correlational evidence.
How children perceive the discipline received may be what is influential.
Correlations between parenting style and childrens behavior not terribly large.
No universally best style of parenting.
7 Relationship with Peers
Relationships with other children start early.
During school years peer interaction becomes more complex and structured.
Importance of friends
8 Important Social Skills Learned
Ability to engage in sustained responsive interactions with peers.
Ability to detect and correctly interpret other peoples emotional signals.
Empathy and Sympathy
Understanding how others feel
Caring about how others feel
9 Freud Psychosexual Stages
Instincts play a key role in human development.
Sexual instincts are dominant
Sexual gratification is derived from the pleasures obtained in satisfying such basic survival needs as
Eating defecating as well as acts that are sexual in nature
10 How does Freud explain socialization and self development
Through a process of psychosexual development with the following stages
The Oral stage from birth to one
Oral gratification (mouth) as the focus for pleasure seeking
Sucking biting chewing
Motivated to find objects to suck to satisfy oral need
2. The Anal stage from one to three
Anal gratification as the focus for pleasure seeking.
Derives satisfaction from the act of expelling or withholding feces.
Parent/child conflict over toilet training
Some with retain feces to point of constipation
These children later in life are likely to be obstinate stingy overly precise cruel and compulsively neat.
3. Phallic stage four to seven
Discovery of genitals
Child finds satisfaction in exploring genital organs
The Oedipus Complex
Strong narcissism a need for continual recognition and appreciation of their unique qualities.
4. Latency stage from seven to puberty
The child turns away from emotional development to pursue more social and intellectual development
No parent/child conflicts to resolve - attracted to world around them
5. Genital stage from puberty on
Adult sexuality and heterosexual desires become the focus for emotional development
Parent/adolescent conflicts over friends significant others and whom adolescents want to become as adults
12 Freudian Stages 6 yrs to puberty Birth to 1½ yrs 1½ to 3 yrs Puberty onward 3 to 6 years Phallic Stage Childs pleasure focuses on genitals Latency Stage Child represses sexual interest and develops social and intellectual sk ills Anal Stage Childs pleasure focuses on anus Genital Stage A time of sexual reawakening source of sexual pleasure becomes someone outside of the family Oral Stage Infants pleasure centers on mouth Figure 2.1 13 Eric Erikson
Eriksons Psychosocial Theory
8 stages of psychosocial development
Social approval is important to development
Each has a unique developmental task
Developmental change occurs throughout life span
Key points of psychoanalytic theories
Early experiences and family relationships are very important to development
Unconscious aspects of the mind are considered
Personality is best seen as a developmental process
Each stage builds on the last
14 Eriksons Eight Life-Span Stages Figure 2.2 15 Eriksons Eight Stages Child develops a belief that the environment can be counted on to meet his or her basic physiological and social needs. Trust vs. Mistrust Infancy 16 Eriksons Eight Stages Child learns what he/she can control and develops a sense of free will and corresponding sense of regret and sorrow for inappropriate use of self-control. Autonomy vs. Shame Doubt Toddlerhood 17 Eriksons Eight Stages Child learns to begin action to explore to imagine as well as feeling remorse for actions. Initiative vs. Guilt Early Childhood 18 Eriksons Eight Stages Child learns to do things well or correctly in comparison to a standard or to others Industry vs. Inferiority Middle Childhood 19 Eriksons Eight Stages
Develops a sense of self in relationship to others and to own internal thoughts and desires
Identity vs. Role Confusion Adolescence 20 Eriksons Eight Stages Develops ability to give and receive love begins to make long-term commitment to relationships Intimacy vs. Isolation Young Adulthood 21 Eriksons Eight Stages Develops interest in guiding the development of the next generation Generativity vs. Stagnation Middle Adulthood 22 Eriksons Eight Stages Develops a sense of acceptance of life as it was lived and the importance of the people and relationships that individual developed over the lifespan Ego-integrity vs. Despair Later Adulthood
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