Women have poor command over land information and financial resources.
In South-east Asia female resource possession is low and female autonomy is very low.
In developing countries women rarely possess land
Female headed households
Female headed enterprises
8 Work and Women
Women work considerably longer hours than men in many countries.
one hour a day in Nepal
three hours a day in Kenya
Division of labor (mostly household job at the expense of education leisure and health)
Common in the absence of adequate infrastructure for water energy and transport
Women still earn less than men in the labor market
On average in developed countries women in the wage sector earn 77 of what men earn in developing countries 73
In politics women continue to be vastly unrepresentative
10 (No Transcript) 11 Labor force participation- Ratio of female to male 12 Labor force in different sectors during 1990-97 13 Distribution of economic activity by gender
Agriculture accounts for the largest share of female employment in much of Africa and Asia
Services account for much of the increase in womens labor force participation in North Africa Latin America and the Caribbean and high-income economies
Worldwide women are underrepresented in industry
Segregating one sex in a narrow range of occupations significantly reduces economic efficiency by reducing labor market flexibility and the economys ability to adapt to change
This segregation is particularly harmful for women who have a much narrower range of labor market choices and lower levels of pay than men
But it is also detrimental to men when job losses are concentrated in industries dominated by men and job growth is centered in service occupations where women often dominate as has been the recent experience in many countries
15 Rising importance of service jobs for women
Many service jobssuch as nursing and social and clerical workare considered feminine because of a perceived similarity with womens traditional roles
Women often do not receive the training needed to take advantage of changing employment opportunities
And the greater availability of part-time work in service industries may lure more women although it is not clear whether this is a cause or an effect
16 Non-agricultural labor force working in gender-dominated occupations 17 Declining sex-ratio
There are at least 60 to 100 million missing women.
Female infanticide and sex-selective foeticide
Declining child sex-ratios
Relation of declining sex-ratios to the population policies and son preference
18 Percentage of female population 19 Where is there anti-girl discrimination and a resulting shortage of girls
East Asia China Taiwan South Korea (not Japan)
South Asia India Nepal Pakistan
Not in most Muslim countries of Arab Middle East North Africa Southeast Asia or Central Asia
Not in most of Latin America Africa Middle East Less Developed or Least Developed Countries
Not in Europe North America Russia
Only certain cultures have such strong traditional anti-daughter bias that is now exacerbated by declining and low fertility leading to sex-selective abortion and/or excess mortality of daughters
20 Chinas abnormal sex ratios
Situation deteriorated 1978 to the present
1978-83 Announcement and implementation of one-child policy increased coercion in family planning resurgence of female infanticide
Reported sex ratio at birth and sex ratio of children at ages 0-4 rose to 120 boys per 100 girls in 2000
Two positive trends Ratio of male to female mortality rates became more normal at ages 2 and above. Sex ratio ages 0-4 stabilized at 120 during 1997-2000
21 What causes the shortage of girls in China
Poverty No some of Chinas poorest areas have no missing girl problem. But economic considerations matter
Political or economic system (No)
Illiteracy low educational level (No)
Chinese culture YES
Low fertility YES. Combined with son preference.
One-child policy Maybe. Seems to worsen excess female infant mortality. Perhaps shortage of girls is more severe than without the one-child policy
22 Declining sex-ratio in India
National decline from 945 to 927 in the number of girls per 1000 boys aged 0-6 between 1991 and 2001
Punjab Haryana Himachal Pradesh and Gujarat (fewer than 800 girls for every 1000 boys)
The ratio is also said to be low in certain districts including the South West District of Delhi which are amongst the most prosperous in the country.
23 In Asia does economic and social development reduce anti-daughter discrimination
Unfortunately not. Not automatically. There is no clear relationship
As shown by Croll in East and South Asia the phenomenon of missing girls has worsened as economies have developed as the status of women has improved and as female educational attainment has risen
In India as in China daughter discrimination is found in urban areas as well as rural and among educated as well as uneducated mothers
The missing girl situation is also extreme in developed East Asian societies such as South Korea and Taiwan
24 Life expectancy at birth female-male 25 Infant and child mortality
Impact of gender gap in education on infant and child mortality can be observed in countries where girls are only half likely to go to school as boys have 21 more infant deaths per 1000 live births than countries with no gender gap
Sub-Saharan Africa (under five mortality would have been 25 percent lower)
26 Maternal Mortality Ratio(MMR)
MMR measures the number of deaths to women per 100000 lives births due to pregnancy-related complications
400 per 100000 live births globally in 2000
By region it was highest in Africa (830) followed by Asia - excluding Japan (330) Oceania - excluding Australia and New Zealand (240) Latin America and the Caribbean (190) and the developed countries (20)
Worldwide 13 developing countries accounted for 70 per cent of all maternal deaths
27 Adolescent child bearing
More than 15 million girls aged 15 to 19 give birth each year.
Motherhood at a very young age entails complications during pregnancy and delivery and a risk of maternal death that is much greater than average.
The children of young mothers have higher levels of morbidity and mortality.
Early child-bearing continues to be an impediment to improvements in the educational economic and social status of women in all parts of the world.
28 Nutritional status
Mothers education health and income are key determinants of child nutrition in developing countries
Study that observed child malnutrition pattern from 63 countries between 1970 and 1995
In Brazil the positive impact on childrens nutritional indicators of additional income in mothers hands is 4-8 times larger than the impact of additional income in fathers hands.
29 Equality index 30 (No Transcript) 31 (No Transcript) 32 (No Transcript) 33 Gender inequalities are costly for development of women
Societies that discriminate on the basis of gender pay a significant price- Marriage market
Gender inequalities in basic rights education access to productive resources participation in public life- all have detrimental impacts on development definitely in the long run
34 Gender and violence
Gender-based violence including physical and psychological abuse trafficking in women and girls and other forms of abuse and exploitation often deter women from using health and other services
In every country where reliable large-scale studies have been conducted results indicate that between 10 and 50 of women report they have been physically abused by an intimate partner in their lifetime
Interpersonal violence was the tenth leading cause of death for women 15-44 years of age in 1998
Forced prostitution trafficking and sex tourism appear to be growing
Existing data and statistical sources on trafficking of women and children estimated 500000 women entering the European Union in 1995
Violence may affect the reproductive health of women through
the increase of sexual risk-taking among adolescents the transmission of STDs including HIV/AIDS and unplanned pregnancies.
Effects of violence may also be fatal as a result of intentional homicide severe injury or suicide and represents a drain on the economically productive workforce
Canada Managua Nicaragua
37 Gender and migration
Migrant women now account for almost 50 of all migrants and are increasingly migrating to find jobs as individuals although many still migrate as dependants
As women and foreigners migrant women often face double discrimination in the labor market
Their status as dependants often limit their access to employment social and health programmes
38 Gender migration and trafficking
Nepali female migrants to India
In the case of female migrants 64 per cent were not engaged in any kind of work in 1961 and this figure went up to 84 per cent in 1971
During 1961 12 percent of women were working as agricultural labours and this decreased to 8 percent in 1971
Ten percent of women in 1961 have reported their occupation as cultivation and this reduced drastically to one percent in 1981
39 Gender and development
All societies have established a clear-cut division of labor by sex although what is considered a male or female task varies cross-culturally implying that there is no natural and fixed gender division of labor
Second research has shown that in order to comprehend gender roles in production we also need to understand gender roles within the household
The third fundamental finding is that economic development has been shown to have a differential impact on men and women and the impact on women has both positive and negative results
40 Economic growth and gender equality
Income growth promotes gender equality in the long run by increasing womens education investment in girls human development and for women to participate in the labor force.
Ghana India Malaysia Pakistan Peru Tanzania Turkey and Vietnam
More investment in rural infrastructure like water transportation and fuel eases the burden of females
Nepal and Pakistan- water and energy infrastructure
Morocco- pipes water increases girls school attendance
41 Three-part strategy
Implementing policies for sustained economic growth and development
Taking active measures to improve womens command of resources and political voice
After three decades of Women in Development and Gender and Development policies the work of redressing gender inequalities has only just begun
Investing in women will not put an end to poverty but it will make a critical contribution to improving household well-being
Furthermore it will help to create the basis for future generations to make better use of both resource and opportunities
43 Thank you
Next meeting July 2nd and 3rd for presentations (Morning 10)
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