Introduction to Animal and Food Sciences Agent In-Service
2 I have finally cum to the konklusion that a reliable set ov bowels iz worth more to a man than enny quantity of brains. Josh Billings Josh billings was a pseudonym for Henry Wheeler Shaw (1818-1885) an American writer that was known for his intentional introduction of misspellings into sketches. 3 Introduction
In simple terms the digestive system is a portal for nutrients to gain access to the circulatory system.
Foodstuffs are broken down to very simple molecules.
Resulting sugars amino acids fatty acids etc. are then transported across the GI tract lining into blood.
The specific foodstuffs animals are able to utilize is dependent on the type of digestive system they possess.
Hind gut (caudal) fermentor simple stomach but very large and complex large intestine
5 Types of Digestive Systems Hind Gut Fermentors Monogastrics Ruminants 6 Basic Functional Anatomy of the Digestive System Monogastrics 7 Digestive Tract - Pig 8 Organs of the Digestive System Monogastrics
Mechanical breakdown of foodstuffs by chewing (reduces particle size increases surface area for action of enzymes).
Saliva added as a lubricant and in some species contains amylase to begin starch digestion.
Tube connecting the mouth to the stomach.
9 Organs of the Digestive System Monogastrics
Enzymatic digestion of proteins begins.
Foodstuffs reduced to liquid form.
Center of metabolic activity in the body.
Major role in digestive process is to provide bile salts to small intestine (needed for digestion and absorption of fats).
10 Organs of the Digestive System Monogastrics
Provides a potent mixture of digestive enzymes to the small intestine to help in digestion of fats carbohydrates and proteins.
3 sections duodenum jejunum ileum
Site of final stages of chemical enzymatic digestion.
Where almost all nutrients are absorbed.
11 Organs of the Digestive System Monogastrics
3 sections cecum colon rectum
Site of water absorption from G.I. tract.
Bacterial fermentation occurs (production and absorption of volatile fatty acids).
Somewhat limited in monogastrics
12 Digestive Tract - Poultry 13 Organs of the Digestive System Monogastrics
Specialized Organs in Poultry
No lips no teeth and no chewing.
Out-pocketing of the esophagus that provides storage for consumed food.
Foodstuffs moistened and softened (little if any digestion).
14 Organs of the Digestive System Monogastrics
Specialized Organs in Poultry (continued)
Glandular stomach where the first significant amount of digestive juices are added.
A muscular organ used to grind and break up food.
May contain grit (small stones) eaten by animal.
15 Organs of the Digestive System Monogastrics
Specialized Organs in Poultry (continued)
Common chamber into which the digestive urinary and reproductive tracts open.
When fecal material is excreted the cloaca folds back at the vent allowing the rectal opening of the large intestine to push out closing the reproductive tract opening.
16 Specialized Poultry Organs 17 Digestive Process - Monogastrics MOUTH amylase STOMACH proteases SMALL INTESTINE amylase maltase bile salts lipases peptidases 18 Basic Functional Anatomy of the Digestive System Ruminants 19 Digestive Tract Beef Cattle 20 Organs of the Digestive System Ruminants
Mouth esophagus liver pancreas gall bladder small intestine and large intestine have functions similar to monogastrics.
Structure and function of the stomach is the major difference between monogastrics and ruminants.
Bacteria/fungi 100 million per gram of rumen fluid.
Functions of microorganisms.
Digest roughages to make Volatile Fatty Acids (VFAs) make microbial protein and make vitamins K and B-complex.
VFAs absorbed in rumen.
23 Parts of the Ruminant Stomach
Lined with millions of papillae (short projections on wall of rumen) needed for absorption.
Shag carpet appearance
24 Parts of the Ruminant Stomach
Rumen saturated with gases and in constant motion.
Contractions occur at a rate of 1-3 per minute.
Serve to mix contents aid in eructation of gases and move fluid and fermented feedstuffs into the omasum.
Taken from Digestive Physiology of Herbivores http//arbl.cvmbs.colostate.edu/hbooks /pathphys/digestion/herbivores/ 25 Parts of the Ruminant Stomach
Ruminants are well known for cud chewing.
Bolus of previously eaten foodstuff carried back into the mouth by reverse peristalsis.
Fluid in bolus is squeezed out with the tongue and reswallowed.
Bolus is rechewed and reswallowed.
Rumination may occupy about 1/3 of a ruminants day
26 Parts of the Ruminant Stomach
Fermentation of foodstuffs in the rumen generates enormous quantities of gas.
30-50 liters per hour in adult cattle.
5-7 liters per hour in adult sheep or goats.
Belching is how ruminants get rid of fermentation gases
Anything that causes a hindrance to belching can be life threatening.
Bloating can result in death from asphyxiation.
27 Parts of the Ruminant Stomach
Contains microorganisms (like the rumen).
Provides additional area for fermentation.
As fermentation by microorganisms proceed and feedstuffs are digested smaller and more dense material is pushed into the reticulum (from which it along with microbe-laden liquid is ejected into the omasum).
28 Parts of the Ruminant Stomach
Lining has a honeycomb structure.
Catches and holds hardware consumed by animal.
Hardware can be removed with rumen magnate.
29 Parts of the Ruminant Stomach
A heavy hard organ with a lining that has many folds (leaves).
Function not well understood.
Believed to produce a grinding action on foodstuffs.
May absorb residual VFAs and bicarbonate.
30 Parts of the Ruminant Stomach
The true glandular stomach.
Secretes acids and functions very similarly to monogastric stomach.
Unique feature is that it secretes lysozyme.
Enzyme that efficiently breaks down bacterial cell walls.
Needed to break down the large quantities of bacteria that pass from the rumen.
31 Digestive Process - Ruminants Nonprotein N (NPN) Feed proteins Carbohydrates Fats RUMEN/ RETICULUM RDP RDP Cellulose Starches Hemicellulose Sugars RUP Volatile fatty acids (VFAs) Microbial protein (essential AA) Glucose LIVER Glucose OMASUM VFAs ABOMASUM RUP Microbial protein Peptides Fats SMALL INTESTINE Peptides Fatty acids glycerol Amino acids Glucose 32 Basic Functional Anatomy of the Digestive System Hind Gut Fermentors 33 Digestive Tract - Horse 34 Organs of the Digestive System Hind Gut Fermentors
Mouth esophagus stomach liver pancreas gall bladder and small intestine have similar functions as compared to monogastrics.
Major difference between monogastrics and hind gut fermentors is the large intestine
Large intestine is exceptionally large and complex compared to monogastrics and ruminants.
35 Organs of the Digestive System Hind Gut Fermentors
The large intestine of hind gut fermentors is analogous to the rumen in ruminants.
Large anaerobic fermentation vat.
Microbes digest structural carbohydrates (cellulose hemicellulose) and soluble carbohydrates that escape digestion in small intestine to VFAs.
VFAs absorbed from large intestine and utilized by the animal.
Microbial protein produced in large intestine is wasted (only very limited absorption from large intestine).
36 Digestive Process Hind Gut Fermentors MOUTH amylase STOMACH proteases amylase maltase SMALL INTESTINE peptidases bile salts lipases LARGE INTESTINE 37 Summary 38 Summary
There are three (3) basic types of digestive systems in farm animal species.
Ruminant (cranial fermentor)
Hind gut (caudal fermentor)
The type of digestive system influences the dietary foodstuffs the animal can effectively utilize.
39 Digestive System Comparisons 40 Digestive Tract Capacities 41 THE END
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