Induction The act or process of reasoning from a part to a whole from particulars to generals or from the individual to the universal also the result or inference so reached
Classic Example The truth of the premises does not guarantee the truth of the conclusion.
Amy is mortal (major premise observation).
Amy is a person (minor premise case).
Hence all persons are mortal (conclusion general rule).
4 Definitions from Babbie text
Deduction the logical model in which specific expectations are developed on the basis of general principles
Induction the logical model in which general principles are developed from specific observations
5 Deduction the logical model in which specific expectations are developed on the basis of general principles Theory Hypotheses
Empirical Generalizations Theory 6 Induction the logical model in which general principles are developed from specific observations Observations Empirical Generalizations Theory 7 Deduction and Induction on the Wheel of Science 8 Defining concepts from the Wheel (definitions from Babbie)
Theories - systematic explanations for the observations that relate to a particular aspect of life sets of propositions explaining a phenomenon
Hypotheses - expectations about the nature of things derived from theories a statement of something that ought to be observed in the real world if the theory is correct. Variables are the building blocks of hypotheses.
Observations - the process of information gathering or data collection in research.
Empirical Generalizations - conclusions based on the results of data analysis either qualitative or quantitative.
10 Deduction the logical model in which specific expectations are developed on the basis of general principles Theory Hypotheses
Empirical Generalizations Theory 11 Example from Text Explain whats in the diagrams (a b c). 12 A social scientific example of the deductive method
Identify a topic of interest e.g. occupational success
Develop your theory on the basis of prior social scientific theory or create a new theory
The theory should address why some people are more successful in their occupations than others.
Specify your major variables e.g. level of education social class background gender income level of occupational prestige
Derive one or more testable hypotheses
Conduct research collect observations and analyze data
Consider the theoretical implications of your empirical results
14 How to develop hypotheses
Clearly identify independent (presumed cause) and dependent (presumed effect) variables
Develop a logical argument for an IV-DV relationship
Specify the nature of the expected relationship (next 4s)
15 Nature of the expected relationship (1)
(1) Quantitative IV Quantitative DV
Positive/Direct IVDV and IVDV
Level of formal education will be positively related to level of occupational prestige with people at higher levels of formal education having higher levels of occupational prestige.
Negative/Indirect IVDV and IVDV
Level of formal education will be negatively related to level of prejudice with people at higher levels of formal education having lower levels of racial prejudice.
16 (1) Quantitative IV and Quantitative DV Positive/Direct IVDV and IVDV Income (DV) High Low Low High Number of Years of Formal Education (IV) 17 (1) Quantitative IV and Quantitative DV Negative/Indirect IVDV and IVDV Income (DV) High Low Low High Number of Years of Formal Education (IV) 18 Nature of the expected relationship (2)
(2) Non-quantitative IV Quantitative DV
Certain attributes of IV will have higher values of DV.
Gender will be related to level of church attendance with females having higher levels of church attendance than males.
Certain attributes of IV will have lower values of DV.
Religious affiliation will be related to attitude toward abortion with Catholics having lower levels of approval of abortion than those in other religious groups (Protestants Jewish people other religion no religious affiliation).
19 Nature of the expected relationship (3)
(3) Quantitative IV Non-quantitative DV
Higher values of IV will fall into certain attributes of DV.
Level of job satisfaction will be related to whether people would continue to work if rich with those at higher levels of job satisfaction being more likely to say they would continue to work if rich than people at lower levels of job satisfaction.
Lower values of IV will fall into certain attributes of DV.
Age will be related to attitude toward capital punishment with younger people being less likely to favor capital punishment than older people.
20 Nature of the expected relationship (4)
(4) Non-quantitative IV and non-quantitative DV
Certain attributes of IV will fall into certain attributes of DV.
Gun ownership will be related to attitude toward mandatory firearms registration with people who own guns being less likely to favor mandatory firearms registration than people who do not own guns.
Whether or not people have children will be related to type of vehicle owned with people who have children being more likely to own mini-vans than those who do not.
21 Hypothesis development using the GSS
General Social Survey Codebook
On left use Mnemonic link if you know the variable name(s).
On left use Subject link if you are trying to find variables that would be relevant to a particular topic.
22 Induction the logical model in which general principles are developed from specific observations Observations Empirical Generalizations Theory 23 Example from Text Explain whats in the diagrams (a b c). 24 A social scientific example of the inductive method
You want to find out who likes coed dorms better - women or men and develop a theory on the basis of your observations.
You gather data of instances in which you observe specific behaviors or statements by women and men relevant to their liking of coed dorms.
You analyze your data. Empirical generalization more women than men like coed dorms.
Based on your results develop a theory that might account for the observed fact that more women than men like coed dorms.
25 Deduction/Induction - Which is better
Deduction is often viewed as more scientific because hypotheses are tested.
However see Wheel of Science (next) both are important parts of the scientific process.
Induction is most often used in exploratory phases of research and deduction in theory testing phases.
26 Wheel of Science Revisited
PowerShow.com is a leading presentation/slideshow sharing website. Whether your application is business, how-to, education, medicine, school, church, sales, marketing, online training or just for fun, PowerShow.com is a great resource. And, best of all, most of its cool features are free and easy to use.
You can use PowerShow.com to find and download example online PowerPoint ppt presentations on just about any topic you can imagine so you can learn how to improve your own slides and presentations for free. Or use it to find and download high-quality how-to PowerPoint ppt presentations with illustrated or animated slides that will teach you how to do something new, also for free. Or use it to upload your own PowerPoint slides so you can share them with your teachers, class, students, bosses, employees, customers, potential investors or the world. Or use it to create really cool photo slideshows - with 2D and 3D transitions, animation, and your choice of music - that you can share with your Facebook friends or Google+ circles. That's all free as well!
For a small fee you can get the industry's best online privacy or publicly promote your presentations and slide shows with top rankings. But aside from that it's free. We'll even convert your presentations and slide shows into the universal Flash format with all their original multimedia glory, including animation, 2D and 3D transition effects, embedded music or other audio, or even video embedded in slides. All for free. Most of the presentations and slideshows on PowerShow.com are free to view, many are even free to download. (You can choose whether to allow people to download your original PowerPoint presentations and photo slideshows for a fee or free or not at all.) Check out PowerShow.com today - for FREE. There is truly something for everyone!