1 Introduction to Biotechnology Biotechnology The use of living organisms or their products to enhance our lives and our environment. 2 Biotechnology Produce traditional products in clever new ways Produce new products (drugs proteins) that didnt exist before Modify genetics to produce organisms with new recombinant traits. 3
Produce traditional products in clever new ways
increase crop productivity meat production and milk production
bacteria that produce insulin for treatment of diabetes
modified bacteria that secrete enzymes to help dissolve oil spills in marine habitats
The miracle of Genetic Engineering 4 Produce new products (drugs proteins)that didnt exist before -diagnostic tests to identify genes for inherited diseases cystic fibrosis Huntingtons disease. -forensics assays for DNA and body fluids -scientists hope to produce individualized designer antibiotics that match the individual persons unique requirements. 5 Modifying genetics to produceorganisms with new recombinant traits. -plants with resistance to disease and parasites. -replacing a defective gene in a plant animal or human -in vitro fertilization cloning -preservation of species by freezing gametes or embryos or resurrecting extinct species using cloning techniques. 6 Spider Silk From Goat Milk 7 Ancient Biotechnology50000 years ago - at least two different species of people began to pass on cultural traditions. People could imagine share ideas plan ahead honor their dead.They began to see the worldas something that could bemanipulated. 10000 years ago - the traditions of agriculture and animal husbandry began to develop. Wheat rye barley Goats sheep 8 Early Agriculture Even relatively primitive peoples understood that selective breeding had positive outcomes. -larger grain seeds flour-selective breeding of goats and eventually cattle to increase milk production and meat content. Agrarian societies unknowingly participated in genetic manipulation to make useful products for humans.SELECTIVE BREEDING IS BIOTECHNOLOGY 9 Modern Example of Selective Breeding Selective Breeding of Kale (Brassica oleracea) Cabbage Brussels Sprouts Cauliflower Kohlrabi Kale 10 This is modern Kale. Its ancestor provided the stock for the selective breeding of the other subspecies. 11 The large terminal buds of the plant were selected to produce cabbage. 12 Large lateral buds were selected to produce Brussels Sprouts 13 Cauliflower was produced by selecting for large white flower stalks. 14 For broccoli large stems and flower stalks were both selected. 15 Kohlrabi was produced by selecting for short fat stems 16 And this is modern Kale. Remember allof the vegetables that you have seen are the SAME SPECIES EACHPRODUCED BYSELECTIVE BREEDING TAKING ADVANTAGE OF WILD TYPE GENES AND NATURAL MUTATIONS. 17
2500 years ago
Egyptians Romans Sumarians traveled and exchanged grape vines rose plants fig plants.
Romans traveled into Africa in search of spices herbs and new vegetables
Species were cross-bred hybridized and carefully selected for traits of better flavor size and diseaseresistance.
18 Modern Preservation Efforts -1930s PresentRussian and American scientists began storing seeds of natural and hybrid plant speciesConsultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR) species preservation and improvement of agricultural methodsImportance of genetic diversity as a world resource. 19 Use of Microorganisms Yeast bread beer Sugar CO2 CH3CH2OHBacteria cheese yogurt antibioticsMolds cheeses Louis Pasteur (1860s) clearly demonstrated that microbes are responsible for fermentation (art becomes science) 20 Classical Biotechnology 19th 20th Century Fermentation became more sophisticated-beers and wine-vinegar-acetone butanol (used for explosives)-antibiotic production-steroid production-amino acid synthesis by bacteria 21 History of Modern Genetics 1857 Gregor Mendel1860 Johann Miesher isolated nuclei and nuclein1882 - Walter Fleming observed the division of chromosomes during mitosis1903 Walter Sutton observed independent assortment of chromosomes during meiosis and reasoned that these chromosomes must have carried the units of inheritance described by Mendel. Gregor Mendel
PowerShow.com is a leading presentation/slideshow sharing website. Whether your application is business, how-to, education, medicine, school, church, sales, marketing, online training or just for fun, PowerShow.com is a great resource. And, best of all, most of its cool features are free and easy to use.
You can use PowerShow.com to find and download example online PowerPoint ppt presentations on just about any topic you can imagine so you can learn how to improve your own slides and presentations for free. Or use it to find and download high-quality how-to PowerPoint ppt presentations with illustrated or animated slides that will teach you how to do something new, also for free. Or use it to upload your own PowerPoint slides so you can share them with your teachers, class, students, bosses, employees, customers, potential investors or the world. Or use it to create really cool photo slideshows - with 2D and 3D transitions, animation, and your choice of music - that you can share with your Facebook friends or Google+ circles. That's all free as well!
For a small fee you can get the industry's best online privacy or publicly promote your presentations and slide shows with top rankings. But aside from that it's free. We'll even convert your presentations and slide shows into the universal Flash format with all their original multimedia glory, including animation, 2D and 3D transition effects, embedded music or other audio, or even video embedded in slides. All for free. Most of the presentations and slideshows on PowerShow.com are free to view, many are even free to download. (You can choose whether to allow people to download your original PowerPoint presentations and photo slideshows for a fee or free or not at all.) Check out PowerShow.com today - for FREE. There is truly something for everyone!