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Child Abuse


Child abuse knows no boundaries. ... A report of child abuse is made, on average, every 10 seconds. ... with adult violence also involve child abuse or neglect. ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Child Abuse

Child Abuse
What is child abuse exactly?
  • The mistreatment of a child by an adult

Scope of the Problem
  • The impact of abuse is far greater than its
    immediate, visible effects.
  • Abuse and neglect are associated with short-and
    long-term consequences that may include brain
    damage, developmental delays, learning disorders,
    problems forming relationships, aggressive
    behavior, and depression.

  • Survivors of child abuse and neglect may be at
    greater risk for problems later in lifesuch as
    low academic achievement, drug abuse, teen
    pregnancy, and criminal behaviorthat affect not
    just the child and family, but society as a whole.

  • Each day in the United States, more than 3
    children die as a result of child abuse in the
  • Most of the children who die are younger than six
    years of age.
  • More children (age four and younger) die from
    child abuse and neglect than any other single,
    leading cause of death for infants and young

  • By age 18, 1 in 4 girls and 1 in 6 boys have been
    sexually abused.
  • It is estimated that 100,000 - 500,000 children
    are sexually abused each year.
  • 85 of sexual assaults on children are committed
    by someone the child knows and usually trusts.
  • Child abuse knows no boundaries. It happens in
    every class, race, ethnic group, educational, and
    economic group. No family is immune.
  • A report of child abuse is made, on average,
    every 10 seconds.

  • Girls are sexually abused 4xs more often than
    boys, while boys are a greater risk of emotional
    neglect and serious injury.
  • Women sexually abused before age 18 have lower
    levels of interpersonal function and social
    adjustment as adults and are less likely to form
    trusting relationships.
  • It is estimated that 50 of all homes with adult
    violence also involve child abuse or neglect.

Who Is Likely to be Abused?
  • Boys and girls are almost equally likely to
    experience neglect and physical abuse
  • 50 of victims are white
  • 25 of victims are African American
  • 15 of victims are Hispanic
  • 2 of victims are American Indian/Alaska Natives
  • 1 of victims are Asian/Pacific Islanders

Types of Child Abuse
  • Neglect 63
  • Physical 19
  • Sexual 10
  • Emotional 8

Physical Abuse
  • Definition non-accidental injury of a child that
    leaves marks, scars, bruises, or broken bones.

Behavioral indicators of physical abuse wary of
physical contact with adults, behavioral
extremes (aggressive or withdrawn), frightened
of parents, afraid to go home, cheating,
stealing, lying (a sign that expectations in
the home are too high), layered clothing.
Physical indicators unexplained
bruises, burns, human bites, broken bones,
missing hair, scratches.
Examples of Physical Abuse
  • Hitting
  • Choking
  • Shaking
  • Kicking
  • Missing or loosened teeth
  • Biting
  • Burning
  • Slapping
  • Beating
  • Injuries inflicted with objects

Emotional Abuse
  • Definition parental behavior, such as
    rejecting, terrorizing, ignoring, or isolating a
  • Physical indicators of emotional abuse speech
    disorders, lags in physical development, failure
    to thrive.
  • Behavioral indicators of emotional abuse habit
    disorders (sucking, biting, rocking), conduct
    disorders (withdrawal, destructiveness, cruelty),
    sleep disorders or inhibition of play, behavior
    extremes (aggressive or passive).

Examples of Emotional Abuse
  • Ignores childs physical/emotional needs
  • Rejection/withdrawal of love
  • Terrorizes/threatens child
  • Cruel, bizarre/inconsistent punishment
  • Isolates/restricts child for long periods
  • Denies child food, shelter, or sleep as a
  • Corrupts child by encouraging antisocial/unaccepta
    ble behavior

  • Definition failure of parents or caretakers to
    provide needed, age appropriate care including
    food, clothing, shelter, protection from harm,
    hygiene, and medical care.
  • Physical indicators of neglect constant hunger,
    poor hygiene, excessive sleepiness, lack of
    appropriate supervision, unattended physical
    problems or medical needs, abandonment,
    inappropriate clothing fro weather conditions.
  • Behavioral indicators of neglect begging or
    stealing food, frequent sleepiness, lack of
    appropriate supervision, unattended physical
    problem or medical needs, abandonment,
    inappropriate clothing for weather conditions.

Sexual Abuse
  • Definition any inappropriate sexual exposure or
    touch by an adult to a child or an older child to
    a younger child.
  • Physical indicators of sexual abuse difficulty
    in walking or sitting, torn, stained, or bloody
    underclothing, pain or itching in genital area,
    bruises or bleeding in rectal/genital area,
    venereal disease.
  • Behavioral indicators of sexual abuse
    age-inappropriate sexual knowledge/sexual touch,
    abrupt change in personality, withdrawn, poor
    peer relationships, unwilling to change for gym
    or participate in physical activities,
    promiscuous behavior/seductive behavior, drop in
    school performance/decline in school interest,
    sleep disturbances, regressive behavior (i.e.,
    bed wetting).

Examples of Sexual Abuse
  • Fondling
  • Indecent exposure
  • Showing pornographic materials
  • Touching sexual organs
  • (of the child or the adult)
  • Attempted or actual sexual intercourse
  • Child prostitution
  • Incest

Characteristics of Potentially Abusive Neglectful
  • Poor parenting skills
  • Unreasonable expectations for child
  • Undue fear of spoiling child
  • Parental attitudes/religious beliefs in necessity
    for harsh physical discipline
  • Multi-generational history of violence or
    domestic abuse
  • Stresses such as martial problem, presence of
    extended family members, lack of social contract,
    unemployment, poor housing and financial problems
  • Severe emotional pressure or mental illness

Influence of Substance Abuse
  • Nearly 1/2 of substantiated cases of child
    neglect and abuse are associated with parental
    alcohol or drug abuse.
  • It is estimated that 1 in 4 children in the U.S,
    (28 million) are living in a household with an
    alcoholic adult.
  • Men and women serving time in the nations
    prisons and jails report a higher incidence of
    abuse as children that the general populations.

Perpetrators of Child Abuse and Neglect
  • are the very people responsible for the childs
    safety and well-being (including parents, other
    relatives, and babysitters).

Who Abuses Children?Where Does it Happen?
  • Most often, the abuser is someone the child
    knows, such as a parent, neighbor, or relative.
  • Child abuse usually happens in the childs home.
    Sometimes it happens in other settings, such as
    child-care centers.

Three major components of child abuse
  • Child
  • Care Giver
  • Stress
  • Child Abuse

  • An unwanted child
  • A hyperactive child
  • A child that reminds the parent or someone they
    do not like
  • A low birth-weight child

  • Emotional immaturity
  • Postpartum depression
  • Unrealistic expectations
  • Stress of unemployment
  • Mental illness
  • Low self-esteem
  • Abused as a child
  • Single parent
  • Spouse is gone much of the time
  • Divorce
  • Alcohol or other drugs

  • Never discipline your child when your anger is
    out of control.
  • Participate in your childs activities and get to
    know your childs friends.
  • Never leave your child unattended, especially in
    the car.
  • Teach your child the difference between good
    touches and bad touches.
  • When your child tells you he or she doesnt want
    to be with someone, this could be a red flag.
    Listen to them and believe what they say.
  • Be aware of changes in your childs behavior or
  • Teach your child what to do if you and your child
    become separated while away from home.
  • Pay attention when someone shows greater than
    normal interest in your child.
  • Make certain your childs school or day care
    center will release him/her only to you or
    someone you officially designate.

The 5 Rs
  • Raise the issue
  • Reach out to kids and parents in your community
  • Remember the risk factors
  • Recognize the warning signs
  • Report suspected abuse or neglect

Reporting of Abuse
  • Approximately 3 million reports of possible
    maltreatment are made to child protective service
    agencies each year.
  • The actual incidence of abuse and neglect is
    estimated to the three times greater than the
    number reported to authorities.

What to do
  • Dont try to conduct an investigation, yourself.
  • If the child tells you of the sexual abuse
    immediately after it occurred, DO NOT bathe the
    child, or wash or change his or her clothes.
  • Let the child talk as much as he or she wishes.
  • Understand that the child is probably having
    mixed feelings.
  • Believe the child.
  • Explain what you will do next to help them.

Distinguishing Accidents From Abuse
  • Location of the injury
  • Common accidental injury locations include knees,
    elbows, shins and forehead. Suspicious locations
    are the protected body parts and soft tissue area
    (the face, back, thighs, genital areas, buttocks,
    or the backs of legs.

Non-accidental injuries
  • Non-accidental injuries may leave a print/pattern
    of a shoe, belt buckle, brush, a cigarette burn,

  • Accidental injuries have a reasonable
    explanation. Abuse injuries may not match their

How Do I Report?
  • If you suspect a child is being harmed, contact
    your local child protective services or law
    enforcement agency.

Reporting Requirement
  • The statute (law) requires that anyone who knows
    or has reasonable cause to believe a child is
    neglected or abused must immediately report it to
    their local Department for Social Service office,
    law enforcement agency, or a reporting hotline.

  • The law clearly states that the failure to report
    child abuse and neglect can result in criminal
    charges that can carry a penalty of up to 90 days
    in jail and a fine of up to 250.

  • The childs identify name address, age, and
  • Name and address of the childs parent, guardian,
    or person with custody.
  • Date, nature and extent of abuse or neglect.
  • The identity of the person(s) suspected of
    abusing or neglecting the child.
  • Any other information helpful in determining the
    cause of the childs injury/neglect.

What will happen when I make a report?
  • Your report will be screened to see if enough
    information exists to conduct an investigation
  • Investigators respond within a particular time
  • Investigators may speak with the child, parents,
    and other people in contact with the child
  • Their purpose is to determine of abuse or neglect
    has occurred and if it may happen again

What will happen when I make a report?
  • If they find that no abuse or neglect occurred,
    the case will be closed.
  • If the investigator feels the child is at risk of
    harm, the family may be referred to services to
    reduce the risk of future maltreatment
  • In rare cases, the child may be removed from the
    home if their safety is unsure