Modern medical technology has increased our life expectancy these innovations have made us aware of the importance of a healthy lifestyle through better diets and regular exercise
9 As more discoveries have occurred people have been able to reconfigure existing material and nonmaterial cultural items through invention. 10 Invention
is the process of reshaping existing cultural items into a new form.
Guns Gunpowder from arrows
1450 The Guttenburg printing press changed the way and the speed that people spread information
12 How did books get written before the printing press
They were transcribed by hand!! Ouch!!
Therefore they only produced books that were guaranteed best sellers.
What was the best seller in 1455
is the transmission of cultural items or social practices from one group or society to another
14 How does diffusion occur
Some parts of culture are more likely to be diffused than others.
Items of material culture are more likely candidates for diffusion than ideas or behavior patterns
16 Once a cultural element is accepted in a new culture it may change in form or function.
Example Piñatas brought to Europe by Marco Polo from China in the 12c. It was used in china to celebrate the harvest seasons.
In Italy the nobles filled them with costly gifts and played a game
In Spain It became part of the Christian Lenten tradition
In Mexico it was used to celebrate the birth of the Aztec god Huitzilopochtli
Today children in many countries have a great time hitting piñatas with sticks at parties when it breaks open candy and/or toys fall out for all the children.
19 There is some resistance to diffusion France bids Adieu to E-mail PARIS July 18 2003-- Goodbye e-mail the French government says and hello courriel the term that linguistically sensitive France is now using to refer to electronic mail in official documents. The Culture Ministry has announced a ban on the use of e-mail in all government ministries documents publications or websites the latest step to stem an incursion of English words into the French lexicon. 20 Other causes of culture change
Pressures arising from
Political Ideas Monarchy/Democracy/Communism
Environmental Concerns Global Warming Sustainable Development
Health Concerns - longer life expectancy means healthier lifestyles - SARS HIV/AIDS
Social Issues Civil Rights Movement Feminism - Gay Marriages - Equality for all (Declaration of Human Rights is an invention)
21 Cultural Lag
a gap between the technical development of a society and its moral and legal institutions.
This happens when material culture changes faster than nonmaterial culture and it creates a lag (space) between the two cultural components.
Ex. Material culture computers and electronic coding have made it possible to create a unique health identifier for each person in Canada. This would enable us to make a data base that included everyones individual medical records from birth to death it could be used by health providers (hospitals doctors) and insurance companies to transfer medical records anywhere quickly.
The available technology does not mean that it will be accepted by the people who believe (non-material culture) that such a national data bank would be an invasion of privacy that could be abused by others.
24 Cultural Lag is also when
one generation of the culture may adapt to change quickly while another does not (computers mp3 players ipods email blogging cell phones text messaging web chatting most young people have mastered this technology while their parents/guardians/grandparents are unable to operate or understand this technology)
25 In todays shrinking globe or global village cultural diffusion moves at a very fast pace as countries continually seek new markets for their products.
McDonalds in Moscow Tokyo
Stuff in general
26 Cultural Diffusion or Cultural Confusion
The Global Marketing Hall of Shame
Launching their drink in China found a phrase that sounded perfect
Ko-kou-ke-la. After printing many signs the masterminds at Coke discovered they had names their drink
Bite the wax tadtole
Faced several problems in playing the name game
Pinto in Brazil is slang for tiny male genitals
They later changed the name to Corcel
29 Kentucky Fried Chicken
Finger Lickin Good
Eat your fingers off
In South America no va
it wont go in Spanish
Come alive with the Pepsi Generation
Translated into Taiwanese as
Pepsi will bring your ancestors back from the dead.
32 Coors Light Beer
Promotion aimed at Hispanics in the United States with the slogan Turn it Loose
Translated into Spanish
Drink Coors and get diarrea.
Coca-Cola introduced 2 litre bottles in Japan but was unaware the few Japanese refrigerators were big enough to hold the bottle
In the 1960s Betty Crocker tried to market its cake mixes in Japan most Japanese homes did not have an oven
When McDonalds ventured into china the corporate mascot Ronald McDonald was at the launch but to the Chinese the clown is symbol of death
A toothpaste company ran a commercial in Southeast Asia claiming its product would whiten teeth.problem
the target market were in the habit of chewing betel nut in order to achieve darkly stained teeth a sign of social prestige
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