2 Main Idea Mixtures can either be heterogeneous or homogeneous
Heterogeneous mixtures visible different parts
Suspensions mixtures containing particles that settle down when left undisturbed. Ex muddy water
Thixotropic mixtures solid like mixtures that flow like liquids when stirred or agitated. Ex toothpaste some paints
Colloids A heterogeneous mixture of intermediate particles and can settle out of solution. Ex milk whipped cream
Homogeneous mixtures uniform throughout
Parts of a solution
Solute substance that gets dissolved in another substance
Solvent substance that does the dissolving
4 Types of Solutions
solute gas solvent gas
Solvent liquid solute solid liquid or gas
Ex soda sea water antifreeze (ethylene glycol in water)
Solvent solid solute solid liquid gas
Ex alloys dental filling (mercury in Silver) charcoal filter (toxic gases in carbon)
5 Forming solutions
A substance that dissolves in a solvent is said to soluble.
Two liquids that are soluble in each other in any proportion are said to be miscible.
A substance that does not dissolve in a solvent is said to be insoluble.
Two liquids that are mixed together but eventually separate are immiscible.
6 Solution Concentration
Measure of how much solute is dissolved in specific amount of solvent.
Described qualitatively as concentrated (containing large amount of solute) or dilute (containing small amount of solute).
Expressed quantitatively in terms of percent (percent by mass percent by volume) or moles (molarity molality).
7 Concentration Ratios (by percent)
Percent by mass mass of solute x 100 mass of solution
Percent by volume volume of solute x 100 volume of solution
What is percent by mass of NaCl if 3.6 g of salt is dissolved in 100.0 g of water
mass mass of solute x 100 mass of solution mass of solution mass of solute mass of solvent
mass 3.6 g x 100 3.5 100.3 g
2. If 18 mL of methanol is used to make an aqueous solution that is 15 methanol by volume how many milliliters of solution is produced
10 Molarity (M)
Number of moles of solute dissolved per liter of solution.
M moles of solutes/ liters of solution
Molality (m) ratio of number of moles of solute dissolved in Kg solvent.
m moles of solute / kg of solvent
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