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Memory Disorders

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Anterograde and retrograde amnesia. Similar to KC. Clive Wearing. Case of encephalitis ... Pervasive amnesia. Both semantic and episodic impairment. Temporal ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Memory Disorders


1
Memory Disorders
  • Psychology 3717

2
Introduction
  • The strange case of Charles DSousa
  • Or is it Philip Cutajar?
  • Rare type of disorder
  • Some stuff clearly spared

3
Introduction
  • Results with amnesiacs has lead to many
    discoveries about memory
  • Episodic vs. semantic memory
  • Procedural vs. declarative memory
  • Implicit vs. explicit memory
  • Phonological loop vs. visuo spatial sketchpad

4
problems
  • Taxonomy
  • Individual differences
  • Interpretation
  • Application
  • Mostly comes down to a lack of control, which of
    course is inevitable

5
Case studies
  • We pretty much have to rely on these
  • They are, thankfully, rare
  • Usually some sort of accident or a stroke

6
Case SP
  • Stroke patient
  • Both Medial temporal lobes, left Hp and lots of
    surrounding area, but not the amygdala
  • Had trouble naming objects
  • Anterograde and retrograde amnesia
  • Similar to KC

7
Clive Wearing
  • Case of encephalitis
  • Pervasive amnesia
  • Both semantic and episodic impairment
  • Temporal lobe dilation
  • Hp destroyed

8
Performance Patterns
  • Retrograde amnesia
  • Losing past memories
  • Anterograde amnesia
  • No new memories
  • Spared function
  • Often implicit tasks, such as priming or ability
    to learn a new skill

9
Typically spared
  • Working Memory
  • Semantic memory
  • Even KC could learn new stuff
  • Declarative information using Tulvings method
  • Restrict errors

10
Why?
  • Difficulties in interference, retrieval and
    encoding
  • Consolidation
  • Tends to come down to something to do with HP
  • Context or sending item off for processing or
    some such thing

11
Semantic memory problems
  • What is a cat?
  • Temporal lobe problems
  • Oddly enough, episodic memory often intact in
    these rare cases

12
Working Memory Problems
  • There are cases of people with intact
    phonological loops and visuo spatial sketchpads
    that are pretty much toast
  • And vice versa

13
Alzheimers
  • More than half of all dementia is from AD
  • 2 times more women than men
  • Could be because women live longer though
  • dementia and brain stuff
  • Neurofibrillary tangles and neuritic plaques

14
AD
  • MASSIVE cell death
  • In essence, you get like lesions everywhere
  • cortical dementia, but you get these lesions,
    holes really, everywhere

15
Neurotransmitters affected
  • ACh is important in memory, especially in HP
  • The ACh system is severely damaged in AD
  • Indeed it is almost targeted
  • Other systems too though

16
Memory effects
  • Episodic effects
  • Eventually semantic effects
  • Retrieval cues dont help
  • Information was not even encoded
  • Nondeclarative stuff, skills etc, are the last to
    go

17
Treatment
  • Most drugs target the cholinergic system
  • This disease not only affects the victim, but
    also his/her family
  • NGF is promising
  • Treatments will come, but, reversal, I dunno
  • Respite care is key for the family

18
Conclusions
  • Frankly there is not a great deal of hope for
    most amnesiacs
  • That said, neuroscience is moving pretty fast
  • Has helped us understand normal function
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