2 Atomic Orbitals Covalent Bonding Atomic orbitals are mathematical descriptions of the probable locations of electrons around an atom. s px py pz dxy dxz dyz dx2-y2 dz2 ... Atomic orbitals can be blended together to form new orbitals called hybrid orbitals. 3 sp Orbital Hybridization The shape is determined by the linear combinations of atomic orbitals y2s y2pz y2s - y2pz and 4 sp2 Orbital Hybridization The 2s 2px and 2pz atomic orbitals of each carbon are used.
2pz 2px 2s sp2 The angle between the orbitals is 120. 5 sp3 Orbital Hybridization 6 sp3 Orbital Hybridization The angle between the orbitals is 109.5. Why isnt the angle 90 four sp3 orbitals tetrahedral shape 7 (No Transcript) 8 Predict the bond angles and the hybridization of the central atoms in each of the following structures. 9 Predict the bond angles and the hybridization of the central atoms in each of the following structures. sp Be sp3 N sp3 O sp2 C sp2 N sp3 C sp C 10 Beryllium sp Hybridization Two orbitals each can hold two electrons 11 sp Hybridization px py Maximum angle that two orbitals can be apart is 180. hao atomic orbtials hybrid atomic orbtials 12 sp Hybridized BerylliumValence Orbitals The other p-orbitals of beryllium (px py) remain unchanged Open orbital contains no electrons Lined orbital contains one electron Filled in orbital contains two electrons 13 sp Hybridized BerylliumValence Orbitals The other p-orbitals of beryllium (px py) remain unchanged Why is it a linear molecule Open orbital contains no electrons Lined orbital contains one electron Filled in orbital contains two electrons 14 Sketch the hybrid atomic orbitals and fill or shade-in the lobes for each indicated atom sp3 N sp3 O sp2 O sp2 C sp2 N sp N sp3 C sp C 15 Sketch the hybrid atomic orbitals and fill or shade-in the lobes for each indicated atom sp2 O sp3 O sp3 N sp2 C sp2 N sp C sp N sp3 C 16 Ethene
Also called ethylene
Polymerizes to form polyethylene
Each carbon forms three sp2 hybrid orbitals.
17 sp2 Hybridization 2py hao This hybrid set can hold six electrons. The unhybridized py orbital is perpendicular to the sp2 orbitals. 18 Ethene
To allow for overlap of the unhybridized py orbitals the bonding in this molecule requires that ethene is planar. All six atoms lie in the same plane.
19 Ethene carbon-carbon sigma bond due to sp2-sp2 overlap carbon-hydrogen sigma bonds due to sp2-s overlap carbon-carbon pi bond due to 2py- 2py overlap 20 Methane The 2s 2px 2py and 2pz atomic orbitals of carbon are used. What would be the name of a hybrid orbital made from these orbitals 21 sp3 Hybridization sp3 All four hybrid atomic orbitals have the same energy. These four orbitals are energetically degenerate. 22 Methane 23 Ammonia N H H H The 2s 2px 2py and 2pz atomic orbitals of nitrogen are used 24 sp3 Hybridization sp3 By hybridizing its atomic orbitals nitrogen gains more stable (lower energy) orbitals for bonding. hao nitrogen ao Which of the electrons in these hybrid atomic orbitals are available for bonding 25 Ammonia a completely filled in orbital contains two electrons Because of this bonding the Ð H-N-H bond angle is close to 109.5 (actually 107). 26 The Structure of Ammonia What bond angle would be expected if the lone pair of electrons didnt affect the structure What bond angle would be expected if the atomic orbitals of nitrogen did not hybridize Why is the actual bond angle not exactly 109.5 Draw the orbital overlap diagram for the reaction of ammonia and a hydrogen ion. 27 Hydrogen Cyanide 2 groups of electrons around carbon What does the orbital overlap diagram look like 28 Hydrogen Cyanide carbon sp hybridized nitrogen sp hybridized hydrogen 1s orbital How many electrons are in each orbital How many electrons are in each orbital 29 Hydrogen Cyanide 30 Hydrogen Cyanide (between carbon and nitrogen) (between hydrogen and carbon and carbon and nitrogen) 31 Nitrite Ion Why is the bond angle approximately 120 3 groups of electrons around nitrogen Ð O-N-O _at_ 120 Draw the hybridized atomic orbitals for each atom O1 sp2 hybridized O2 sp3 hybridized 32 Nitrite Ion -1 charge 1s2 2s2 2p4 1s2 2s2 2p3 1s2 2s2 2p4 33 Nitrite Ion What other kind of bond is formed 34 Nitrite Ion N O O Where is the pi bond located 35 Nitrite Ion How would the bonding change if O2 was unhybridized 36 Nitrite Ion -1 charge 1s2 2s2 2p4 37 Nitrite Ion What other kind of bond is formed 38 Nitrite Ion pi bond formation How could resonance in this molecule be explained 39 Ethene 3 groups of electrons around carbon Ð C-C-H _at_ 120 Ð H-C-H _at_ 120 40 Ethene How many sigma bonds and how many pi bonds are formed 41 Ethane 4 groups of electrons around carbon Ð C-C-H _at_ 109.5 Ð H-C-H _at_ 109.5 42 Ethane What kind of bonds are formed 43 Dipole Moments
Charge is not always equally distributed in a molecule.
There can be a region of positive charge and of negative charge.
The vector connecting these regions is called the dipole moment.
For molecular compounds
solubility and miscibility are related to the polarity (i.e. dipole moment) of the molecule.
Like dissolves like is a rule of thumb for solubility
polar molecules dissolve in polar solvents
nonpolar molecules dissolve in nonpolar solvents
45 Carbonate Ion The concept of dipole moments can also be applied to ions although they generally dissolve in polar solvents (e.g. water) because of their charge. Although carbonate ion has no net dipole moment it dissolves in polar solvents because of its ionic charge. 46 Like Dissolves Like
The rule like dissolves like is not perfect
However it does serve as a starting point in determining what type of solvent to use when attempting to dissolve a solid.
47 Polarity Predictions
Rank the following molecules in terms of polarity
water benzene chloroform
48 (No Transcript) 49 Electronegativity 50 (No Transcript)
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