Title: India workshop on Multilingual Education Tribal situation in India Challenges
1 India workshop on Multilingual Education Tribal situation in IndiaChallenges optionsBharat LalDirectorMinistry of Tribal AffairsGovernment of India 2 Who are the Scheduled Tribes Communities are notified as ST under Article 342 of the Constitution based on the following Characteristics - Primitive Traits - Geographically isolated - Distinct culture - Shyness of contact with community at large - Economically backward 3 1991 Census 50.66 of the total STs population is in Scheduled Areas 4 ST 1961 6.85 1971 6.93 1981 7.53 1991 8.01 2001 8.20 5 (No Transcript) 6 POPULATION BELOW POVERTY LINE () 7 (No Transcript) 8 Tribal Populations remain Under-served Many tribal habitats are inaccessible. Consequently effects of development are either lacking or are sub-standard. Abject poverty of the tribal people is resultant and compounds the problem. According to the development indicators prepared by the Planning Commission about 35 of STs are below the poverty line. 9 Ministry of Tribal Affairs
Created in 1999 Ministry of Tribal Affairs is the Nodal Ministry for overall policy planning and coordination of programmes of development for STs Research Scheduled Areas V VI Scheduling and de-scheduling of tribes Promotion of voluntary efforts in tribal development
However for sectoral programmes such as health education poverty alleviation women child development etc. the concerned Central Ministry continues to administer their programmes and schemes of their Ministries for STs also
Socio- economic advancement of the STs to bring them to the level of the rest of the community while simultaneously conserving their cultural traditions to suit their own genius
11 Constitutional Guarantees The country has special concern and commitment for the well being of the Socially Disadvantaged Groups For the protection of Scheduled Tribes and for their socio-economic and political development the Constitution of India has provided for certain social economic and political guarantees 12 Main concerns / issues
Lack of awareness regarding distinct problems of STs often clubbing them with other disadvantaged groups.
Low level of HDI as compared to rest of the population.
Poor infrastructure leading to low capacity of the economy in tribal areas to effectively absorb institutional finance.
Inaccessibility of tribal areas and tough terrain mostly forests.
The FCA 1980 often restricts the developmental activities.
Non marketability of social sector programmes leading to increased vulnerability in liberalized economy.
Food scarcity in spite of surplus food production
13 Main concerns / issues (contd.)
Non adoption of TSP approach by various Ministries/ States.
Non convergence of Developmental Schemes at planning/ Implementation level
Non adoption of single line administration
Inability of States to contribute 50 in Centrally Sponsored schemes.
Unrest in one form or the other in most of the tribal areas.
At the present rate of accelerated economic growth especially infrastructure development in the country vis-à-vis the Tribal Areas the gap is widening at a much faster rate.
Will of the Government notwithstanding populations in remote and low-density areas in general do not have adequate access to basic amenities education employment opportunities and affordable health care services.
Most Tribal populations often have high levels of morbidity arising from poor nutrition particularly in situations where they are involuntarily displaced or resettled.
Frequently they have low levels of literacy coupled with high infant child and maternal mortality.
In other words they remain one of the major under-served population groups in the country.
15 Recent initiatives 16 Task Force for development for STs
A Task Force to address tribal issues relating to Development of Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes on selected agenda items in the NCMP was set up.
Pursuant to the decision of the said Task Group an Inter-Ministerial sub-Group on Scheduled Tribes under the Chairmanship of Secretary Tribal Affairs suggested measures for overall development of STs and submitted report to the Planning Commission.
Budget allocation of the Ministry for 2004-05 was Rs.1146.00 crore
The Budget allocation of various Plan schemes/ programmes of the Ministry for 2005-06 is Rs.1498.82 crore An increase of 30.78 .
Cluster based approach for development is being adopted in the thrust areas to focus on the creation of such infrastructure in the tribal areas which enhances production capacity of the land and ensures value-addition right at the grass root level.
18 Assistance to States
Assistance to States for focussed projects with specific activities and outputs
Change in approach assistance to Self-help groups
Apart from these funds under SCA to TSP to the tune of Rs. 497 crore and Rs.330 crore under Article 275 (1) are to be used for income generation/employment and creation of critical infrastructure under a revised strategy focusing on thrust areas and area approach.
Steps have been taken to bring synergy with other line/ sectoral ministries/ departments
19 Development of Forest Villages
Development of long neglected forest villages without proper infrastructure have been taken up as focussed area.
Rs. 230 crore (over and above the existing Rs. 497 crore for Development of Forest Villages under SCA to TSP in 2005-06
Fund released to 5 States
Project proposals from other 9 States have been sought
20 Minor Irrigation for STs land
Irrigation facilities to STs for their meagre lands is very poor
Forced to adopt subsistence agriculture
Poor irrigation facilities as a major cause leading to poor economic condition
In 2005-06 Rs. 50 crores over above the existing Rs. 330 crore for Minor Irrigation under the Article 275 (1) of the Constitution
Full amount have been released to States
21 Rajiv Gandhi National Fellowship
A new higher education oriented scheme to provide fellowships for M. Phil. and Ph. D courses has been conceived and Rs. 8.8 crore for the same has been provided in 2005-06.
The scheme is in the process of finalisation.
22 IEC campaign
Documentaries on various tribes of the country are being telecast on DD-1 every Friday at 9 AM under the title Janjatiya Darpan to create awareness about our rich tribal heritage.
A quarterly Newsletter Janjatiya Jagran started
This is send up to the level of Panchayats having STs population to disseminate information on various development programmes being implemented by the Ministry for the welfare of Scheduled Tribes.
23 Assistance to NGOs
Since 2005-06 powers to receive examine and approve projects for assistance to NGOs/ voluntary sector have been delegated to States
Fund is allocated to States in accordance to the STs population
This involves State Governments in the sector and brings transparency
24 Tribal Policy and Scheduled Tribes (Recognition of Forest Rights) Bill 2005
A new National Tribal Policy is being formulated
This Ministry is in the process of finalizing a Draft Bill titled the Scheduled Tribes (Recognition of Forest Rights) Bill to recognize certain rights of Scheduled Tribes living in forests.
The Draft Bill is pending consideration of the Cabinet
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