The second half of the Nibelungenlied was probably based on a separate work and only later combined with the Siegfried material to form a single epic.
Many of the characters are introduced a second time after Chapter 19 Kriemhild Volker Dancwart etc.
The tone changes as well becomes darker driven by vengeance and fate.
2 Der Nibelunge Nôt 19
Kriemhild remains with her family at Worms for 3½ years avoiding Gunther and Hagen.
Hagen convinces Gunther to reconcile with Kriemhild in order to get Siegfrieds gold!
Kriemhild makes peace with everyone except Hagen (146).
Kriemhild has Siegfrieds gold brought from Nibelungenland to the Rhine (cite 146f.).
3 Der Nibelunge Nôt 19
Kriemhild uses her wealth to lure warriors to her service which worries Hagen (cite 148).
Hagen siezes all of Kriemhilds gold and throws it into the Rhine at Locheim imagining that he would return one day to put it to use.
Basis for the Rheingold-legend used by Richard Wagner and others.
4 Der Nibelunge Nôt Modern statue of Hagen on the bank of the Rhein casting the Nibelungen gold into the river. 5 Der Nibelunge Nôt 19-20
Guilt placed on Hagen for hiding the treasure but all the Burgundian kings were accomplices.
Kriemhild mourns the loss of her treasure as greatly as the loss of Siegfried.
She waits another 10 years before she is approached by Rüdiger envoy of the Heathen King Etzel (Atilla the Hun).
6 Der Nibelunge Nôt 19-20
Etzels court located in Hungary a distant part of the medieval Holy Roman Empire.
Another Wooing-Expedition led by noble Rüdiger of Pöchlarn more comments on clothing and decoration (151-153).
Hagan again the only one in Worms who can identify the newcomers.
Rüdiger presents his message (cite 155).
7 Der Nibelunge Nôt 8 Der Nibelunge Nôt 20
Gunther and his court are in favor of the marriage except Hagen who alone foresees trouble (cite 157).
Kriemhild still mourning for Siegfried and reluctant to remarry but Rüdiger persuades her by swearing oath of vengeance (161f.).
Kriemhild has thoughts of vengeance and agrees to the marriage to Etzel (cite 162).
9 Der Nibelunge Nôt 20-21
Kriemhild prepares for the journey.
Strange repetition of Hagen seizing the gold of the Nibelungs from Kriemhild so that she cannot use it against him.
The voyage from Worms along the Danube is described in great detail most places well-known in medieval times.
An interesting insertion a stop at Pöchlarn to visit Rüdigers family and estate.
10 Der Nibelunge Nôt 22
As Kriemhild nears his kingdom Etzel and his knights ride out to meet her (171ff.).
The authors confuses the historical Huns with the Hungarians or a fantasy heathen territory in the distant provinces of Austria.
Etzel and Kriemhild are married in the city of Vienna (174) and festivities ensued.
Kriemhild still mourns secretly for Siegfried.
11 Der Nibelunge Nôt 22
Kriemhild and Etzel arrive in his castle Etzelnburg amid glorious festivities.
Margrave Rüdiger King Dietrich of Verona Hildebrand Bloedelin of Hungary King Gibech (Gjuki) part of Etzels court.
Germanic epic cycles associated with Dietrich (Theoderich) and Hildebrand.
12 Der Nibelunge Nôt 23
Kriemhild and Etzel live together in splendor for 7 years nothing happens.
Kriemhild has a son named Ortlieb (177).
In her 13th year she had control over the court and began musing on revenge against Hagen (cite 177).
Author attributes Kriemhilds plotting to the influence of the foul fiend (177).
13 Der Nibelunge Nôt 23
Kriemhild asks King Etzel to invite her relatives to his court erotic manipulation of the guileless Etzel (178f.).
Etzel send his two favorite minstrels to deliver the invitation to Worms (Swemmel and Werbel).
Kriemhild speaks secretly with the minstrels ensuring that Hagen comes along (cite 180).
14 Der Nibelunge Nôt 24
The Minstrels arrive safely in Worms and present their invitation (183f.).
Gunthers courtiers want to accept only Hagen opposes the invitation (cite 184f.).
Giselhers taunt that Hagen alone is afraid of Kriemhild prompts him to go anyway.
Hagen proposes that they go well armed ready for a fight (186). Over 4000 knights.
15 Der Nibelunge Nôt 24
Hagen does not let the minstrels depart he gives Kriemhild no advance warning! (187)
Brunhild refuses to see the envoys since she still resents Kriemhild! (Brunhild plays little role in the second half of the epic).
The envoys finally return to Etzel in Gran.
Kriemhild is wickedly pleased to hear that her dear friend Hagen is coming (189).
16 Der Nibelunge Nôt 25
How the Nibelungs journeyed to Hungary the names are confused here.
The Burgundians have taken the name of Siegfrieds land and the Huns have taken the territory of the later Magyars.
Queen Uote has an ill-boding dream (190).
Rumold entrusted with running the kingdom while all the Kings are visiting Etzel (191).
17 Der Nibelunge Nôt 25
The Burgundians take leave of their women and depart for Hungary/Hunland.
They find the Danube river swollen and impassable (192f.) Hagen goes ahead to find a ford or a ferryman for their crossing.
Hagen discovers water-fairies (nixies) who can tell the future he takes their clothes to extort a prophesy from them (cite 193f.).
18 Der Nibelunge Nôt 25
One of the water spirits (swan maidens) tells Hagen the truth only the Kings Chaplain will survive the trip (194).
The fairies also tell Hagen how to find the unruly ferryman and to beware the local ruler Gelpfrat.
The ferryman refuses to row Hagen across the Danube so Hagen kills him and takes the boat for himself (cite 195f.).
19 Der Nibelunge Nôt 25
Hagen ferries thousands of warriors across the Danube.
Hagen decides to test the fairy prophesy he throws the chaplain overboard (197f.)!
Brutal Hagen even pushes the poor chaplain underwater but he swims back to the shore.
Hagen knows the prophesy is true These knights are doomed to die thought he (198).
20 Der Nibelunge Nôt 25-26
Hagen destroys the ferry so that no cowards can retreat later only the chaplain has made it back across the Danube.
Hagen confesses why he tried to drown the poor chaplain (cite 199) we must fight!
Gelpfrat hears of the murdered ferryman and chases after the Nibelungs/Burgundians.
Hagen challenges Gelpfrat the Bavarian and a fight quickly ensues (cite 201f.).
21 Der Nibelunge Nôt 26
Hagens brother Dancwart comes to his aid and kills Gelpfrat. Bavarians withdraw.
4 Burgundians lost to over 100 Bavarians.
They pass from Bavaria to Passau and on to Pöchlarn (home of Etzels knight Rüdiger).
Eckewart is asleep while guarding the borderHagen takes his sword but recognizes him and chivalrously returns it (204).
Thidrekssaga reveals authors changes (375f.)
22 Der Nibelunge Nôt 26-27
Eckewart announces the arrival of the Burgundians to Rüdiger who greets them graciously. A final pause before the storm.
Rüdiger has his wife and daughter present each of the guests with a ceremonial kiss Giselher is attractive but not Hagen (207).
The Burgundians are smitten with Rüdigers daughter Hagen suggests a marriage with Giselher and it is agreed (cite 209).
23 Der Nibelunge Nôt 27-28
Rüdiger (the perfect host) presents the Burgundians with more presents before they leave ironic touches (cite 211).
Dietrich and Old Hildebrand are now introduced an exiled king and his famous knight at residence in Etzels court.
Historical figure (Theoderich of Verona).
Dietrich knows Hagen warns him that Kriemhild is still mourning for Siegfried!
24 Der Nibelunge Nôt 28
Despite Dietrichs warnings the warriors of Burgundy decide to face their fate bravely.
They arrive at Etzels court where Kriemhild greets them (cite 216).
Kriemhild asks haughtily if Hagen has brought her back the Nibelung treasure.
Flyting between Hagen and Kriemhild he does not bother with deception (cite 216f.)
25 Der Nibelunge Nôt 28-29
Only Dietrich is able to stand up to Kriemhild she backs down before him.
Kriemhild then promises money to the Hun who will kill Hagen! not enough volunteer so she tells them to wait (220).
Hagen and Volker the Minstrel taunt Kriemhild serene and unafraid (cite 222)
The Hunnish warriors too afraid to strike.
26 Der Nibelunge Nôt 29-30
Kriemhild is disgusted with the cowardly Hunnish warriors plots to force the action.
Etzel on the other hand receives his guests with great openness and courtesy (224).
Unlike the Volsunga saga Etzel is a noble king with no desire for their treasure.
Hagen and Volker keep watch that night Volker plays a lullaby Huns too afraid to attack the guarded hall.
27 Der Nibelunge Nôt 30-31
Hagen advises the Burgundians to go to church armed just in case (232).
A Christian mass is celebrated in addition to the Heathen rites of Etzels men.
After church the Burgundians start the Bohort other leaders refrain from jousting because they know what it could lead to
Volker cant resist killing a dandy young Hun (234). Cheating or prowess
28 Der Nibelunge Nôt 31
Etzel stops the Huns bent on vengeance against Volker (235). Obligation of the Host.
Kriemhild approaches Hildebrand and Dietrich but they refuse to help her.
Kriemhild promises Bloedelin land money and a beautiful girl and he agrees (cite 236).
Etzels son Ortlieb introduced his frist encounter with Hagen (cite 236f.)
29 Der Nibelunge Nôt 32-33
Bloedelin and his warriors attack Dancwart the Marshall and the Squires (238).
Dancwart quickly decapitates Bloedelin!
The Huns take furious vengeance and being reinforced kill every Burgundian squire.
Dancwart alone survives fights his way back to the court (cite 240f.).
Dancwarts arrival causes an uproar (242).
30 Der Nibelunge Nôt 33
Hagen is furious kills Prince Ortlieb his tutor and maims the minstrel (cite 243).
Fighting in the hall becomes general Volker and Hagen kill many Huns.
Kings Gunther Gernot and Giselher join in the action general slaughter (244f.).
Kriemhild appeals to Dietrich and he gets safe conduct for her and Etzel (cite 246).
31 Der Nibelunge Nôt 33-34
Rüdiger and his men are also allowed to leave the hall under safe conduct.
Outside Etzel complains of Volker the Minstrels dreadful music (247).
All Huns remaining in the hall are butchered.
To prevent clutter Hagen and Volker throw 7000 Hun corpses from Etzels hall.
Hagen taunts Etzel and Kriemhild (250f.).
32 Der Nibelunge Nôt 35
Margrave Iring of Denmark challenges Hagen beginning of the individual duels.
Iring attacks Hagen then Volker then Gunther then Gernot then kills 4 men (253).
Giselher attacks Iring and stuns him but he leaps up injures Hagen and escapes (253f.).
Iring enters the hall a second time battles with enraged Hagen (cite 255) and dies.
33 Der Nibelunge Nôt 35-36
After Iring death the Danes and Thuringians attack the hall for vengeance but are routed by the Burgundiansblood in torrents (257).
Burgundians ask Etzel for a truce they want leave to fight in the open to die quickly instead of slowly in the besieged hall.
Kriemhild prevents their leaving (cite 260f.).
Kriemhild orders the hall be set on fire.
34 Der Nibelunge Nôt 36
The thirsty Burgundians drink blood from the corpses to sustain themselves (261f.).
After an evil night of fire and torment 600 Burgundians survive until the morning.
Impasse neither side is able to gain a meaningful advantage despite much killing.
Previously neutral characters Dietrich and Rüdiger feel helpless to intervene.
35 Der Nibelunge Nôt 37
Rüdiger caught between conflicting allegiances cannot be a coward (265) but cannot fight honorably against either group.
Kriemhild reminds him of his early oath to avenge any insult to his Queen (cite 266ff.).
Heroic Tragedy a good and noble knight given no honorable choice except to die.
Irony Giselher thinks the armed Rüdiger is coming to their aid! (268f.).
36 Der Nibelunge Nôt 37
Rüdiger enters the hall the Nibelungs try to dissuade him to no avail (cite 269f.).
Rüdiger gives his shield to Hagen a final gift as a token of respect and mutual ties.
Hagen and Volker declare they will not fight him no matter the outcome.
Rüdiger attacks kills many valiantly before Gernot confronts him with his own sword they kill each other at the same time (274).
37 Der Nibelunge Nôt 37-38
After Rüdigers death his men are slowly killed off Pöchlarn emptied of its knights.
The great lamentation for Rüdiger soon reaches the ears of Dietrich who sends a messenger to learn the cause.
Dietrich sends armed Hildebrand to inquire about Rüdigers killing (277f.).
Hildebrand asks for Rüdigers body so that they can render final homage (279).
38 Der Nibelunge Nôt 38
Volker retorts that true warrior homage would be taking the body not begging for it.
Volker provokes Dietrichs men to action Hildebrand cannot prevent the killing (280).
Heroes against Heroes heroic vengeance for Rüdiger. Old Hildebrand fighting as if he had gone berserk! (cite 281).
Old Hildebrand kills Volker the Fiddler.
39 Der Nibelunge Nôt 38
The nameless warriors on both sides soon finish each other off only heroes left alive.
Helpfrich slays Dancwart brother of Hagen (282).
Wolfhart and King Giselher kill each other (282).
Hildebrand escapes Hagens wrath leaves only Hagen and Gunther alive in the hall.
40 Der Nibelunge Nôt 38-39
Old Hildebrand informs Dietrich of the sad news Rüdiger is dead as are all of his own men (284)!
Dietrich laments his luckless destiny (284f.).
Dietrich and Hildebrand face off against Hagen and Gunther the only warriors that still remain alive!
Noble Dietrich makes an offer of settlement which Hagen bluntly refuses (cite 287).
41 Der Nibelunge Nôt 39
Hagen attacks Dietrich but is overcome captured and bound (288).
Dietrich delivers Hagen to Kriemhild who finally enjoys a moment of happiness!
Gunther rushes out to meet Dietrich in battle only to meet Hagens fate captured and bound and delivered to Kriemhild (289).
Dietrich pleads for an honorable settlement with the last of the Nibelungs.
42 Der Nibelunge Nôt 39
Kriemhild demands her treasure from Hagen he cannot reveal its location as long as any Burgundians remain alive (cite 290).
Kriemhild finishes off the line of Nibelungs first having her brother killed and then slaying Hagen with Siegfrieds old sword Balmung (290). Vengeance is finally hers!
Hildebrand is outraged that a woman could kill Hagen so he kills Kriemhild (291).
43 Der Nibelunge Nôt 39
There lay the bodies of all that were doomed to die (291). All are dead now except Etzel Dietrich and Hildebrand.
Nothing left but lamentation
Ine kán iu niht bescheiden waz sider dâ geschach
wan ritter unde vrouwen weinen man dâ sach
dar zuo die edeln knehte ir lieben friunde tôt.
hie hât das mære ein ende das ist der Nibelunge nôt.
44 Der Nibelunge Nôt
What is the meaning of the epic
Unusual medieval epic with no hint of hope or recovery at the conclusion.
A decidedly unchristian epic despite the inclusion of a Christian façade.
Pride arrogance greed desire power wealth prestige honor and vengeance a cautionary tale
A celebration of heroic honor and prowess
A national epic a tale of cultural identity
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