Piaget believed that the effect of any experience on knowledge or thinking depended on the persons maturity combined with previous experiences
He began his psychological career administering IQ tests but found it boring
however fascinated by the incorrect answers that children would give.
2 An Overview of Piagets Theory
Piaget believed that a child constructs new mental processes as child interacts with the environment
Behavior is based on schemata (singular - schema.)
A schema is an organized way of interacting with objects in the world.
New schemata are added and old schemata are changed as child matures.
3 An Overview of Piagets Theory
Adaptation of old schemata takes place through two processes.
Through assimilation a person applies an old schema to a new object.
Through accommodation a person modifies an old schema to fit a new object.
People in all stages switch back and forth between these two strategies but ultimately cognitive change is accomplished through accommodation.
4 An Overview of Piagets Theory
The four stages of intellectual development
Sensorimotor Birth to 1 years of age
Preoperational 1 to 7 years of age
Concrete Operations 7 to 11 years of age
Formal Operations 11 years of age and older
5 An Overview of Piagets Theory
The sensorimotor stage
Piaget called the first stage the sensorimotor stage because at this early age behavior consists primarily of simple motor responses to sensory stimuli.
Examples of these would be the grasping and sucking reflexes.
6 An Overview of Piagets Theory
The sensorimotor stage
Jean Piaget believed that infants lacked a concept of object permanence during the early months of life.
Object permanence is the idea that objects continue to exist even when one cannot see them or otherwise sense them.
According to Piaget an infant does not know that a hidden object is still there until about 8-9 months of age.
7 An Overview of Piagets Theory
The Sensorimotor Stage
As infants progress through the sensorimotor stage they seem to develop a concept of self.
At about 1 year of age they begin to show signs that they recognize themselves.
They also begin to show self-conscious emotions such as embarrassment.
8 An Overview of Piagets Theory
The Preoperational stage
Piaget called the second stage of cognitive development the preoperational stage because the child lacks operations.
The term operations refers to reversible mental processes.
The lack of operations leads to errors in cognition such as egocentric thinking the child for example knows that he has a brother but doesnt understand that he is his brothers brother.
9 An Overview of Piagets Theory
The Preoperational Stage
Another example of a concept that preoperational children lack is conservation.
The inability to conserve results in a failure to recognize that changes in shape and arrangement do not always signify changes in amount or number.
10 An Overview of Piagets Theory
The Concrete Operations stage
From about age 7 children begin to exhibit reversible operations and seem to understand the conservation of physical properties.
According to Piaget during the stage of concrete operations children can perform mental operations on concrete objects.
They may however have trouble with abstract or hypothetical ideas.
11 An Overview of Piagets Theory
The Formal Operations stage
Formal Operations is Piagets term for the mental processes used to deal with abstract hypothetical situations.
These are processes that demand logical deductive reasoning and systematic planning.
Piaget proposed that children reach this stage just before adolescence (at about age 11)
Researchers have found that some people take longer to reach formal operations and some people never do.
12 An Overview of Piagets Theory
Are Piagets stages distinct
Piaget believed that the four stages of intellectual development were discrete and that each one represented a major reorganization in cognitive processes.
More recently though researchers have shown that this conclusion is not entirely warranted.
13 An Overview of Piagets Theory
Implications for education Piaget
Children must discover certain concepts on their own.
Childrens attention must be directed to key aspects of concepts when they are ready to learn those concepts.
The teacher needs to determine the childs level of functioning and then teach material appropriate to that level.
14 Eriksons Ages of Human Development
Erikson divided the human life span into eight ages each with its own social and emotional conflicts.
In this way he sought to provide a model of why people behave the way they do given the decisions that they are facing according to age.
15 Eriksons Ages of Human Development
Ages 0 - 1
The infant faces the issue
Is my social world predictable and supportive
The conflict is basic trust versus basic mistrust.
Ages 1 3
The toddler asks the question
Can I do things for myself or must I always rely on others to help me
The conflict of is autonomy versus shame and doubt.
16 Eriksons Ages of Human Development
Ages 3 6
The preschooler needs to figure out
Am I a good person or a bad person
The conflict is initiative versus guilt.
Ages 6 12
In an expanding social world the school-aged child wants to know
Am I successful or am I worthless
The preadolescent faces the struggle with a sense of industry versus inferiority.
17 Eriksons Ages of Human Development
Teenagers seek independence and the answer to a fundamental question
Who am I
The adolescent must resolve the conflict between a settled identity versus role confusion.
Young adults deal with the importance of companionship and connection
Shall I share my life with another person or live alone
The conflict is that of intimacy versus isolation.
18 Eriksons Ages of Human Development
In the mid-adulthood one seeks to have contributed meaningfully to society -
Will I add anything of value to the world
Conflict is achievement of generativity versus stagnation.
Toward the end people face a deep question -
Have I lived a meaningful life or squandered my time
We struggle to determine whether we have arrived at a stage of ego integrity versus despair.
19 Infancy and Childhood
Attachment is a long-term feeling of closeness between a child and a caregiver
Early developmental psychologists believed that feeding was the primary cause of attachment between mother and child.
Later John Bowlby (1973) and other developmental psychologists theorized that infants who develop a good sense of attachment to adults who care for them have a better sense of safety and confidence as they start to explore the world around them.
20 Infancy and Childhood
Early attachment in humans
Some researchers wanted to know why the quality of attachment between human children and their parents seemed to vary so much in quality.
Mary Ainsworth devised a test called the Strange Situation to examine what factors might contribute to this variation.
21 Infancy and Childhood
Early attachment in humans
In the Strange Situation study
A mother and infant (12 to 18 months of age) enter a room with toys in it.
A stranger enters the room.
Mother leaves the room.
Mother returns to the room.
Mother and the stranger leave the room.
The stranger returns to the room.
Mother returns to the room again.
22 Infancy and Childhood
Early attachment in humans
The psychologists who observed the Strange Situation classified the infants responses as follows
Anxious or insecurely attached
Anxious and avoidant
23 Infancy and Childhood
Early attachment in humans
Uses of the Strange Situation
Has been used with fathers as well as mothers and children
Predicts the quality of the childs future relationship with parents
Has also been used with grandparents and grandchildren and even pets and their humans
24 Infancy and Childhood
Early attachment in humans
When interpreting these results remember
Parental behavior does have an effect on attachment and possibly temperament
child born with a pleasant and calm temperament may elicit more affectionate behaviors from a parent than a less predictable and fussier infant.
study may have limited applicability across cultures.
Over the course of the twentieth century adolescence in our society has lengthened.
generally recognized to begin at puberty the onset of changes that result in sexual maturity.
The end of adolescence is harder to discern.
most of last century characterized adolescence as a period of storm and stress.
Adolescence is the time of finding oneself.
Western society offers many choices to teenagers.
This is invigorating and yet also can cause anxiety.
An adolescents concern about the future and achieving self-understanding has been referred to as the identity crisis.
The crisis may or may not be so turbulent depending on the adolescent.
James Marcia developed set of identity statuses based on 2 elements of identity development
Whether or not one is actively exploring the issues of identity development crisis
Whether or not one has made any decisions commitment
Having given decisions no real thought and having no clear sense of identity is identity diffusion.
Having made firm decisions without giving them much thought is foreclosure.
Seriously considering issues without making any decisions is a state of moratorium.
Having explored the possibilities and made ones own decisions is state of identity achievement
Marcias statuses are useful for thinking about the important dimensions of finding a stable identity.
It is possible that identity achievement does not happen all at once.
The Personal Fable
According to David Elkind teenagers are particularly prone to harbor beliefs such as
It wont happen to me!
Nobody understands how I feel.
Everyone cares about how I look and what I am wearing. also known as the imaginary audience.
These beliefs may be adaptive in some situations but can also lead to risk-taking behavior and feelings of alienation from parents and peers.
The beginning of young adulthood is marked by commitments in the areas of career relationships and lifestyle.
The quality of the period known as middle age is influenced in part by the outcome of these early adult decisions.
The midlife transition
midlife crisis is a dramatic expression for the reassessment of personal goals
A more low-key and accurate term is midlife transition.
Some abandon unrealistic goals set in youth set new goals that fit with their current lives
Others try to fulfill some of those early life dreams or set new ones
Despite the stereotypes we hold old age is not a uniform experience for humans.
Some people do deteriorate rapidly either physically or intellectually.
Others remain active and alert into their 80s and well beyond
elderly in our society have been experiencing improved health activity and intellect
The psychology of facing death
Death can occur at any age but we usually associate it with the later years of life.
The way we deal with death is culture-based and is constantly evolving.
Terror-management theory states that we cope with our deep fear of death by actively avoiding the thoughts of it and maintaining an optimistic and hopeful world-view.
Even being casually reminded of mortality increases peoples defense of their belief system whatever that may be.
35 Gender Influences
Females tend to perform better in language-related tasks especially language fluency.
Males generally do better on difficult spatial and mathematical tasks.
36 Gender Influences
As adolescence begins males and females may not be prepared to communicate with each other.
Males tend to demand what they want and women tend to cooperate.
Males are more concerned with issues of status compared to other men.
Women prefer expressions of sympathy from listeners men often fail to understand this.
These are generalizations. Not all male-female relationships are hampered by these issues.
37 Ethnic and Cultural Influences
Membership in a minority group molds a persons development in two ways
The customs of the group may differ significantly from those of other groups.
Members of the minority group are affected by the attitudes of other people who may treat them differently or expect certain behaviors of them based on stereotypes.
38 Ethnic and Cultural Influences
Acculturation is a transition from feeling connected to the culture of origin to feeling like part of the culture of a new country
It is a gradual process and may take more than a generation to complete.
39 The Effects of Parenting Style
Diane Baumrind described 4 basic parenting styles based on dimensions of warmth control
Authoritative parents impose controls but show warmth and encouragement to the child.
Authoritarian parents impose control but tend to be emotionally distant from the child.
Permissive parents are warm but impose few limits.
Uninvolved parents are distant and do little more than provide resources.
40 The Effects of Parenting Style
Children of authoritative parents tend to be most self-reliant and cooperative.
Children of authoritarian parents tend to be obedient but also distrustful and not very independent.
Children of permissive parents are frequently socially irresponsible.
Children of uninvolved parents tend to be impulsive and hard to discipline.
41 Parental Employment and Child Care
Although we tend to assume that western models are the norm child-rearing practices vary greatly between world cultures
Communal child rearing use of paid help and many other variations exist from our traditional model of the stay-at-home mother.
In general whether loving stay-at-home parents rear children or children receive high quality day care for part of the day child development proceeds normally.
42 Parental Conflict and Divorce
Not so long ago divorce was an unusual outcome for marriage.
An estimated 75 of African-American and over one-third of European-American children will experience the divorce of their parents.
These children show more academic social and emotional problems than children whose parents have not divorced
This may be partly explained by the reduced attention and increased economic hardship experienced by these children.
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