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Buddhism during the Period of Disunion


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Title: Buddhism during the Period of Disunion

Post-Han The Period of the Three Kingdoms and
the period of Disunion (Northern and Southern
Multistate system
  • The unified China began to collapse in late Han
    and a new multistate situation began
  • Warlordism resulted in the formation of the Three
    Kingdoms, which began a new period of Chinese

The Three Kingdoms 220 A.D.-265 A.D.
  • Features of early multi-state system
  • Founder of a state was a charismatic military
  • The fate of the state often depended on the life
    span of the founder
  • Conflict of interest led to political struggles
    between powerful landed families and military
    men, causing a tug of war and the change of
    political leadership of the state
  • A new charismatic leader would eventually rise to
    end the multi-state system and reunify China

Problems of Dynastic System
  • A single family ruled
  • Powerful and Great families formed through
    marriages to emperors, princes, and princesses,
    becoming imperial affines and holding important
  • Eunuchs interfered with state affairs
  • Empress dowager held regency during the reign of
    an underage emperor, often causing political

The Three Kingdoms
  • Wei Cao Cao
  • Shu Liu Bei
  • Wu Sun Quan
  • This was a period of warlordism, or multistate

China Now and China in the Period of the Three
Reunification and of China
  • The three kingdoms ended in 265 AD, leading up
    the reunification of China in 280 by the Sima
    family, who established the short-lived Western
    Jin Dynasty
  • The Western Jin collapsed soon as a result of
    internal political struggle and foreign invasion.
    The Sima family moved the capital to Jiankang
    (Nanjing) in 317 AD
  • China was divided into north and souththe
    beginning of the Northern and Southern Dynasties
  • Eastern Jin ruled south
  • Nomads ruled north

Cao Cao and His Legacy
  • Cao Cao prepared his son Cao Pi to become the
    ruler (emperor) of the Wei, ruling north China in
    220 AD, marking the end of the Han
  • The Cao family ruled the north until 265 AD, when
    the Sima family formally established the Jin
    Dynasty and unified China in 280 AD.
  • The Jin remained adherent to much of Cao Caos
  • The most important of Cao Caos legacy The Nine
    Rank Method for Designating Men to Office, and
    military dynasticism

Mask representing Cao Cao in Beijing Opera
The Nine-Rank System
  • Official bureaucracy was divided into nine ranks,
    with the rank on highest and rank nine lowest
  • Trusted and impartial judges selected by court
    and sent to their home commanderies to recruit
    candidates for offices
  • They reviewed the dossiers of recommended
    candidates, interviewed them, and graded them

  • Candidates received higher grades were
    recommended to the central government, where
    there were made entry-level court appointments by
    the Personnel Board of the Secretariat

  • Under Cao Caos rule, early phase of the system
    stressed the recruitment of talented men,
    irrespective of their moral traits
  • Filial piety, uprightness, or incorruptibility
    were not concerned
  • inhumane and unfilial men were welcomed, as
    long as they posses the arts of ordering a state
    or using the military.

Military Dynasticism
  • Definition ruler of the dynasty possesses
    military power derived from hereditary soldiery
    and substantial state-owned lands worked by
    tax-paying tenants.
  • In Cao Caos (Wei) case, hereditary soldiery came
    from military colonies
  • In Sun Quans case (Wu), it came from private
  • In Jins case, private armies/troops
  • Military population increased rapidly in the

  • Non-Han tribes in the North--viewed as barbarians
    by the Chinese
  • Tribal confederations
  • Powerful and successful chiefs became rulers of
  • Strongest one dominated and even unified the
    entire north, for instance, the Tuoba (Tabgatch)
    tribe led by Tuoba Gui
  • Tuoba Gui established a dynasty called Northern
    Wei, or Tuoba Wei,

Non-Chinese dominance in the North
  • Non-Chinese officially took over north China in
    317 AD. Powerful tribes included
  • Xiongnu
  • Xianbei (Murong, Yuwen, Tuoba)
  • Di, Qiang, Jie
  • Multistate system began with the formation of the
    sixteen kingdoms, which occupied north China and
    challenged South China ruled by the Eastern Jin

  • Rulers of Northern Wei (Tuoba Wei)
  • adopted Chinese system of administration
  • Tuoba Gui built a Chinese-style capital at
  • Reorganized their people into eight artificial
    tribes and forced them to abandon nomadism

  • Emperor Xiaowen
  • moved the capital to Luoyang and actually
    initiated a process that can be called
    acculturation, intending to integrate Xianbei and
    Han cultures
  • Adopted Chinese bureaucratic system and
    recruiting talented Han Chinese to serve
  • required his court officials to wear Chinese
    costume and speak Chinese language
  • fused Xianbei and Han Chinese through
    intermarriage and shared rankings promoted
    intermarriage between powerful families of Han
    Chinese and Xianbei elites

  • allowed Han Chinese to administer Chinese
    districts/provinces as governors
  • used Chinese surnames in place of their tribal
    names, for instance, Tuoba was renamed as Yuan.
  • Adopted Chinese language, requiring Xianbei
    people to speak and write Chinese

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Transformation of Landscape
  • New capitals emerged in the south
  • New physical spaces for new activities appeared
    as a result of newly emerged literary and
    cultural forms
  • gardens, villas, taverns, pavilions.
  • New architecture and city planning resulted from
    the rise of institutional religions, notably
  • Temples, monasteries

Northern Cities
  • Ye (in modern Hebei)
  • The city was a rectangle bisected by a major
    east-west road
  • North of the road palace complexes,
    aristocratic residences, and imperial park
  • Government offices on the eastern section,
    imperial retreat on the western section
  • South of the road a grid of residential wards
  • Marked by a substantial female presence and
  • Men and women enjoyed relative equality

  • Importance of the city
  • City plan provided the immediate model for the
    capitals of the subsequent Sui and Tang dynasties
  • And for early capitals in the Korean peninsula,
    Palhae (Bohai), and Nara in Japan.

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Making distinctions between N S
  • Northern Women
  • Women maintained familys status, handled legal
    disputes, made formal calls, and received the
  • Womens carriages filled the streets
  • Wore fine silks, frequented governments offices
    to seek offices for their sons
  • Southern Women
  • Almost had no social dealings

Cities and Landscape in the South
  • Capital Jiankang represented an artificial
    replica of natural, mountain-and-water landscape
  • Gardens and large estates became new spaces for
    private and public activities
  • Construction or large gardens and estates that
    symbolized power and prestige, caused
  • Mountains gained recognition
  • Landlords built private gardens in the capital,
    bring natural landscape into their own families
  • Established southern families converged in the
    southeast of Jiankang northern émigrés
    developed estates in Guiji, east of the capital

Capital City Jiankang
  • Earlier, its natural landscape made it a
    defensive city without wallthe topography was
    described as coiled dragon and crouching
  • Gardens and estates built throughout the capital
    and its surroundings blurred this topography or
    the natural barrier between city and country
  • The construction of Buddhist temples helped
    intensify this blurring of the boundary between
    city and country

Buddhist Temples
  • Now built in the capital city and many other
    cities became new public spaces
  • marked a major innovation in the spatial
    structure of the Chinese city
  • Number of temples in Luoyang increased rapidly
  • 3, by late 3rd AD
  • 42, by 316 AD
  • 839, after 317
  • 1,367 after 493 (Northern Wei)

Cave Temple Sculpture
  • Large-scale public image worship
  • Yungang cave temple sculpture (started after 460
    AD) built by the Northern Wei

Yungang Cave
Multistoried Pagoda
  • Signaled the extension of imperial power to
    Buddhist community, the expansion of Buddhism,
    and the change of urban life
  • A seven-storied pagoda was included in the
    Yongning Temple in 467 when Northern Wei had its
    capital in Pingcheng
  • Monasteries and pagodas were packed closely
    together in Luoyang, after Northern Wei moved its
    capital there in 493

  • Who built these temples?
  • Members of the ruling elite (the majority)
  • Imperial clan
  • Middle-level officials
  • Wealthy commoners (probably businessmen)
  • Eunuchs
  • Monks (the minority)

  • Why did they build temples?
  • Showed their piety towards Buddhism
  • Acquired political power and social prestige
  • Converting private mansions into temples became
    one of the important lay donations
  • Lay donations marked a turning point in Buddhist
  • Imperial kin and wealthy people donated wealth to
    build temples, make Buddhist images, celebrate
    festivalsfor the benefit of the populace

  • Social functions of temples
  • They were open spaces to the populace
  • Their patrons included people from all four
  • Chinese and barbarian,
  • men and women,
  • rich and poor,
  • monks and laymen
  • They were centers of regular festivals and public
  • Celebration of the Buddhas birthday on 4/4

  • The second Yongning Temple, built in 516 in
    Luoyang by the Dowager Empress Ling, consisted a
    nine-story pagoda which was a central locus of
    imperial authority

900 Chinese feet high
Worship of Buddhism
  • South Imperial patronage
  • Emperor Wu of the Liang
  • North absorption of the Buddhist monastic order
  • promoted self-image as wheel-turning king
  • sponsored sculpturing of images of buddhas

Cave 16, Standing Bodhisattva
  • Number of Buddhist temples in Jiankang
  • 700 in Jiankang during the Liang Dynasty
  • 2,816 in the entire Liang realm
  • Emperor Wu of the Liang supported Buddhism with
    much enthusiasm
  • Asserted his authority over monastic order by
    making himself a self-claimed bodhisattva
  • Offered vows, staged mass assemblies, and held
    the maigre feast

  • The emperor held Universal Assemblies (or
    Assemblies Open to Everyone) in Jiankang,
  • Buddhist lectures
  • Confessions
  • Ceremonial banquets
  • Vows
  • Participants included monks, officials, commoners

Jiankangnew economic center
  • Chinas political and economic center shifted
    from Pingcheng, Ye, Luoyang, to Jiankang
  • A trade entrepôt
  • Local and inter-regional trade flourished
  • Market arose in many locations, often next to
  • Sea-based foreign trade to Japan, Korea, and
    Southeast Asia expanded

  • River system in the region helped transport
  • Estates could sell surpluses to the capital to be
    consumed or trans-shipped to other cities
  • Known for important commercial crops including
    rice, fruits, vegetable and timber, dried fish,
    ceramics, lacquer, bronze mirrors, textiles, and

Changes social structure and life
  • Innovations
  • Crops rice was double-cropped, a large variety
    of commercial crops were produced
  • Technologies new ideas and new tools
  • Economy cash economy flourished
  • Country estates and state-owned land
  • Landlordism and powerful/leading families in the
  • State-owned land in the north

  • New Ideas
  • Labor-intensive farming was used to increase
    rice production
  • Opened new land, established estates in hills
  • Buddhism and Daoism helped reinforce this idea
  • Took advantage of animal power
  • Used the single-ox plow
  • Animal-drawn harrows

Animal-drawn hallow, N S Dynasties
  • Seed selection
  • Quality seeds were identified, 98 varieties of
    millet 37 varieties of rice
  • Seed pregermination
  • This accelerated growth, particularly the growth
    of rice in the wet south
  • Sowing with seed-drill

Two-oxen plow (Han)
  • Transplantation of wet rice
  • Pre-germinated seeds sown in seed beds
  • Transplanted into the main field two to eight
    weeks later
  • Straight-row planting to facilitate weeding (far
    more labor-intensive than techniques used in
  • Use of organic fertilizer
  • Animal manures and silkworm droppings
  • Green manures (e.g., beans)
  • Crop rotationallowed multicropping
  • Inter-planting different crops or varieties

  • Grain storage
  • Wealthy landlord used granaries
  • Common people used earthen pits
  • Used salting, pickling, or making pastes to
    preserve different food crops

Commercial crops and produce
  • At least 37 species of vegetables in the north
  • Fruit production increased in the south
  • Many came from central Asia lichees, loquats,
    bananas, coconuts.
  • Numerous varieties appeared
  • 45 of jujubes, 12 of peaches, 12 pears
  • Distinctive flora and fauna in the south
  • They were sold in markets and grown in gardens

  • Massive production of rice in the south
  • Resulted from migration and population increase
  • Labor-intensive cultivation became significant
  • Skilled peasant shaped the social structure of
    rural society
  • Large-scale milling technique and water-driven
    machinery were developed.

  • Tea growing and tea culture
  • Grown in hillsides of south China
  • Tea-drinking began among southern elite
  • Buddhists promoted tea-drinking
  • Largely produced by individual peasant households
    or monasteries at this time

Changes of social and familial structures
  • South
  • Families divided, kinship structure loosened
  • Divided families used separate pots and multiple
  • Kept separate property
  • Women were subordinate to men,
  • North
  • Large families remained, kinship structure
  • Large families used single pot, single stove
  • Shared common property
  • Women controlled household affairs, including

  • Militarized northern men tended to serve the
  • Aristocratic/powerful families remained in power
  • but sinicization caused members of these families
    leave offices
  • Members of leading families lost their local
    bases if they kept their offices
  • Effiminate southern men tended to eschew office
  • Large émigré families unable to sustain political
  • leading families played important role in local
  • Members of leading families sacrificed their kin
    ties for their offices

  • Equal-field system diminished great families
    dominance of local society
  • State-owned lands remained crucial
  • samgha households (Buddha household)
  • Equal-field system not practiced in the south so
    no-office leading families remained influential
    in local society
  • State controlled some lands, such as emolument
    lands but leading families owned more

North and South distinctions
  • Families were simple and sincere,
  • Valued relations by marriage
  • People were heroic, so they valued offices
  • They were martial, so they valued noble kin
  • Families were refined
  • Valued the exceptional individual
  • Priority given to talented sons regardless of
    their lower status (children of secondary wife)

Village life in scholarly writing
  • Tao Qian (365-427) patriarch of the poets of
  • Known for writing farmstead poetry similar to
    Western pastoral poetry
  • Known for writing the prose narrative Peach
    Blossom Spring

To Registrar PangTao Qian
  • ?????,
  • ??????
  • ?????,
  • ??????
  • ?????,
  • ??????
  • Capped, I met the troubles of the age
  • First married, I lost my wife.
  • Fiery droughts repeatedly ablaze
  • Insects rampant struck my fields
  • Storms came from every side
  • So the harvest did not meet one mans needs.

Outer World during the Western Jin
Chinas World Order in the 5th C
  • China dominated Asia politically and culturally,
    although it never actually conquered its
    neighboring states.
  • Northern dynasties claimed right of suzerainty
    over the neighboring states, but sometimes
    Southern dynasties also enjoyed suzerainty.
  • A tributary system was built to allow neighboring
    states to pay tributes to Chinese emperors and
    interact with the Chinese through diplomatic

  • Neighboring states adopted many features of
    Chinese culture and politics
  • Being a hybrid culture now, because of the fusion
    of tribal customs and life styles and that of the
    Han Chinese, Chinas influences on the
    neighboring states also included elements of
    tribal culture.
  • Chinas influences on the neighboring states in
    political system, Confucian values, ideas about
    family and social hierarchy, Chinese script or
    writing system resulted in the formation of
    Sinosphere, East Asian Values, and East
    Asian Civilization.

Outer World during the Western Jin
  • North and NortheastXianbei
  • Eastern Murong, Yuwen, Duan
  • Central Tuoba, Rouran
  • Northwest Western Xianbei, Xiongnu
  • West Wusun, Jiang

Outer World during the Eastern Jin
Outer World during the Northern Dynasty (Wei) and
the Southern Dynasty (Qi)
Outer World during the late Northern Dynasty
(Northern Zhou and Qi) and Southern Dynasty (Chen)
Outer World Tributary States/City States
  • Northeastern neighborhood
  • Koguryo, Paekche, Silla
  • Eastern neighborhood
  • Japan (Yamato)
  • Southern neighborhood
  • Vietnam (not a state yet)
  • Western neighborhood
  • Central Asia Kucha, Karashahr, Gaochang and
    Kroraina (including what is now Xinjiang,
    Afganistan, northern Pakistan and part of the
    former Soviet Union.)

  • Koguryo
  • During the Han, sent tribute to the Han and
    adopted the title of king
  • Established a Chinese style Grand Academy
  • Adopted a legal code based on that ofs the Jin
  • Began to convert to Buddhism
  • Paekche
  • Established relations with the Jin court (372)
  • Its ruler received recognition and titles from
    the Jin court (386) as a general and deputy king
  • Court adopted architectural, musical, and poetic
    styles from the Chinese
  • Transmitted Chinese practices, along with
    Buddhism, to Japan

Korea during the Eastern Jin and Former Qin
Korea during the Northern Wei and Liu Song of the
Southern Dynasty
Korean Version of Its History
  • The priestess-queen Himiko sent missions to
    Northern (Cao Wei) China in the 3rd century
  • Himiko augmented her prestige using Chinese-style
    bronze mirrors and military banners
  • After 413, more than a dozen Japanese missions
    visited the Southern dynasties
  • Received titles, seals of office, bronze mirrors,
    and military banners
  • Court began to trade with China in the 6th
  • Chinese culture imported into Japan via Korea
  • New style of armor, iron metallurgy, textual
    canon, practices of statecraft, Buddhism and its
    temple architecture

  • Japan began wholesale adoption of the Chinese
    style of government in the early 7th century
  • Chinese culture and systems introduced to Japan
  • Writing system, legal code, Chinese-style
    capital, population registration system, land
    registration and allocation system
  • Imperial system, world-order concept, social
    class structure
  • As a result, the Japanese established tribute
    relations with their own barbarians

  • Belonged to a south China area known as Lingnan
    when the Qin conquered the place
  • After the Qin, the area remained independent for
    a century as the Southern Yue state loyal to the
  • During the Han, large-scale Han immigration
    caused the emergence of a state or nation,
    dominated by two towns Jiaozhi (near modern
    Hanoi) and Panyu (modern Guangzhou of China)

  • After the Han, it emerged as an independent state
    until early 3rd century, but divided into two
    regions, Jiaozhou and Guanzhou
  • Major families in Jiaozhou, led by one of the
    larger magnates, the Ly family, controlled the
    area and became independent in mid 6th century
    until the Sui unified China in 589.
  • Adopted Chinese writing system, political
    concepts, family and social structures, and

Central Asia
  • Now Xinjiang, Afghanistan, northern Pakistan, and
    parts of the former Soviet Union
  • Relations established by trade through Silk
  • Silk transported to the West
  • Exotic goods flowed to China precious metals,
    glass, slaves and entertainers, wild and domestic
    animals, furs and feathers, rare plants and wood,
    exotic foods, perfumes and drugs, textiles and
    dyes, secular and sacred art objects, as well as
    books and maps telling of the foreign places

  • Costumes, white face powder, musical instruments
    and songs, foreign fruits, new styles and
    techniques in the arts
  • Cultural elements
  • Buddhism, Manichaeism, Zoroastrianism, Nestorian
    Christianity, and Islam
  • Tea and sugar associated with Buddhism started to
    draw attention
  • Chair associated with Buddhism was introduced to
  • Buddhist texts, iconography , rituals, were used
    and adapted in Chinese monasteries

Kinship and Family
Mounds of the Cao Family
Kinship structure redefined
  • Renewed sense of kinship linked up small families
    and brought about these changes
  • lineage cemeteries/graveyards (family cemeteries)
  • Celebration of the Cold Food Festival
  • Multi-generation communal families
  • Ritualization of the Ghost Festival

Lineage cemeteries
  • Extended family members of the same lineage
    gathered at ancestral tombs to perform ancestor
    worship associated with the Qingming Festival
    (105 days after the winder solstice)
  • Multichambered family tombs emerged
  • Family tombs placed together formed the mountain
    tombs (often imperial families and rulers
  • Imperial mausoleums became a norm in the Eastern
    Han and later

  • Family tombs of great/large families in cluster
    or large tomb were often called Mounds of the
    (Cao/Zhou/Wang) Family
  • Cao familys tombs, excavated in late 1973,
    spread an area of a mile and a quarter
  • Excavations of other family tombs (Wu, Zhou,
    Wang) indicate that eminent families tended to
    build large family graveyards.
  • merit cloisters served as family graveyards
    emerged because of Buddhist influence

The Cold Food Festival
  • Historical background
  • Development of the Qingming Festival
  • Families gathered at the tombs of their ancestors
    to clean the tombs, make offerings
  • This custom was turned into multi-generation
    collective worship of ancestors in later times
  • Two major consequences for ancestor worship
  • larger size of kinsmen made offering to early
  • The Cold Food Festival tied Kinsmen closely

Communal families
  • Families dwelt together for generations for
  • Encouraged by Confucian moralists and rewarded by
    the emperor regardless of purposes
  • Large kinship organization emerged in a village
    or town functioned more than self-defense
  • Financial/economic sufficiency
  • Self-supported agriculture

Expansion of Kinship
  • Furthered/affected by new form of writing
  • Family instructions, family rules
  • Genealogies
  • Yan Zhitui (531-591) The Family Instructions of
    the Yan Clan
  • Contrasts conduct in the north and in the south
  • Offers advices not to remarry, carefully manage
    the familys material resources, importance of
    books, study, and skillful writing, avoid
    military service, belief in Buddhism, adhere to
    family tradition

Kinship and Buddhism
  • families showed piety towards Buddhism
  • Built stone statues/sculptures of the Buddha
  • Built votive stone stupas, which provide evidence
    of the fusion of Buddhism and indigenous beliefs
    or conventions
  • Carved memorial stelae
  • Made Buddhist images
  • Performed the Ghost Festival rituals

New Sense of Filial piety
  • Motherly love and mothers sufferings much
  • More wives and mothers became patrons of Buddhism
  • children urged to repay parents, particularly

  • female misogamy or womens marriage resistance
    inspired by Goddesses such as Guanyin
  • erotic literature, created by men, also inspired
    by Goddesses

Gu Kaizhi, the rejection scene 7 of London
Admonishing scrollAdmonitions of the
Instructress to the Court Ladies
Gu Kaizhi, the toilette scene 4 of London
Admonishing scrollAdmonitions of the
Instructress to the Court Ladies
  • Supporting the Confucian tradition and
    indigenous Chinese religion including Daoism
  • Allowing the construction of Buddhist temples
    and the spread of Buddhism

A Lady reflects on her duty. Scene 8 of the
London Admonitions Scrolls
Daoism in This Period
  • Daoist ideas of immortality spread widely
  • Daoist masters and adepts promoted alchemical
  • Providing manuals that teaches alchemy, breathing
    and meditation exercises, exorcism, sexual
    hygiene, herbalism, talismanic charms etc
  • Ge Hong (283-343), the most prominent Daoist
    whose theory of immortality and recipe for an
    elixir became popular

Evolution of Daoism
  • Daoist schools emerged
  • The Supreme Purity
  • The Numinous Treasure
  • The legendary Laozi was apotheosized and new
    Daoist deities were created
  • Idea of preserving and guarding life force became
    predominant in Daoist/Taoist circle
  • Longevity and immortality became major goals

  • Ways to prolong life were sought and researched
  • Meditation theory and skill further developed
  • Interest in medicines, drugs, herbs, rare
  • Alchemical recipes were developed
  • Daoists began to write books and manuals
    regarding regimen, longevity, and immortality
  • Interests in alchemy spread

Master Who Embraces Simplicity
  • Ge Hong (283-343)
  • Known as the first Daoist theorist of longevity
    and immortality
  • Regarded as the foremost expert possessing
    alchemical skills to compound immortality drug
    or divine elixir
  • Called immortal cinnabar (xian dan) or golden
    cinnabar (jin dan), cinnabar drug (dan yào),
    spirit-like cinnabar (shén dan)
  • Developed recipes to make nine cinnabars

Buddhism in This Period
  • Began to flourish
  • Scriptures were translated and studied
  • Monasteries were built, teachings were spread
  • Followers increased
  • Adaptation and transformation
  • Chinese interpretation of Buddhist doctrines
  • Five precepts (prohibitions not killing, not
    stealing, not committing sexual misconduct, not
    drinking, not lying humaneness (benevolence),
    righteousness, propriety, wisdom and

  • Integration in Chinese culture
  • Chinas landscape
  • Art and literature
  • Intellectual life
  • Political life
  • Common peoples lives

Wall painting depicting Jataka stories
Buddhism Major tenets
  • Four noble truths
  • Eightfold path
  • Wisdom right thoughts, right understanding
  • Morality right speech, right action, right
  • Mental discipline right efforts, right
    mindfulness, right concentration

  • Dependent origination and chains of causation
  • Impermanence
  • Karma and rebirth

Wall painting Five hundred thieves attain
The Three Poisons
  • Desire (greed) rooster
  • Hatred snake
  • Ignorance pig

Buddhism and Common Peoples Lives
  • Attracted to eminent monks
  • Included theurgists, such as Baozhi, Sengqie
  • Made donations to monasteries
  • Practiced sutra-copying and recitation
  • Sponsored carving, sculpturing, and painting of
    images of Buddhas and Bodhisattvas

  • Praying to the Buddha and Buddhist deities
  • became integrated in the worship of ancestor and
  • Devotees of the Pure Land faith increased
  • Increasing number of women entered monasteries
  • Strange/anomalous tales abounded

Wall painting in a tomb Filial Son Feeding
Convergence of Interestthe Mixture of Buddhism
and Daoism
  • Scholars and the faithful began to fuse Daoism
    and Buddhism
  • The idea of immortality became widely recognized
    and accepted
  • Legendary heroes were enshrined as Daoist
    immortals and deities
  • Expansion of local cults
  • Daoists mixed Buddhist theories of causation,
    reward, rebirth, hells into their belief system
  • Philosophy of nature greatly impacted Chinese
    literature and art

Elixir and Fairy Tale
  • Hou Yi the Archer
  • Wife Chang E stole elixir that Hou Yi received
    from Queen Mother of the West
  • After ingesting the elixir, Chang E became
  • She flied to the moon and lived there forever.
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