Forgiveness is one of the key ideas in this world. Forgiveness is not just some nebulous vague idea that one can easily dismissWithout forgiveness there is no futureWithout forgiveness resentment builds in us a resentment which turns into hostility and anger No one can be fully human unless he or she relates to others in a fair peaceful and harmonious wayAnything that subverts this harmony is injurious not just to the community but all of us and therefore forgiveness is an absolute necessity for continued human existence.
2 Presentation Objectives
Explore the possibility of forgiveness as a collective level construct.
Grounded Theory - Case study
Propose definitions with properties.
3 Site Selection
Small non-profit community-based hospital located in the Northeastern U.S.
Recent history of downsizing organizational restructuring.
4 The Revolution
Dec 1997 The VP Operations Mr. Weight suddenly announces his resignation after 15 years of service.
Within a week employees conclude that he was forced out by the two principal leaders of the organization Mr. Marinaro the CEO and Mr. Hyde the Executive V.P.
5 The Revolution
Employees organize a grass-roots effort to express dissatisfaction with the action
Physicians Organization unanimous vote of no confidence.
Employee letters of concern written to the Board of Directors
The formation of an underground newsletter.
Peaceful storming of a board meeting by 100 employees
A yellow ribbon campaign that moves into the community.
6 The Revolution
Feb 12 1998 Mr. Marinaro resigns. Mr. Hyde takes an administrative leave and officially resigns one month later.
Feb 23 1998 Mr. Weight is rehired
7 The Revolution
Organization in a state of offense
Collective perception of the leaders as immoral
The collective perception that the leaders posed an existential threat
The collective general state of fragmentation with respect to the leaders
8 Leaders as Immoral
Sweeping assertions that the leaders were morally suspect.
My perspective was that Mr. Marinaro and Mr. Hyde were just corrupt and not interested in supporting a hospital
Distrust in the leaders vision for the future and claims about the hospitals current condition
There were so many rumors flying around all the time that you never knew what was real and what was not .... we constantly thought the hospital was being bought and we never did know what was the truth because nobody up there would tell you.
Perception that former administrators acted based on self-serving morally indefensible intentions.
The former president would do things because it was directly related to one of his personal interests.
9 Leaders as Existential Threat
Description of actions as posing a fundamental threat to the existence of the organization.
Given the firing of Mr. Weight the administrative structure as it now stands places the hospital in financial jeopardy... We believe that unless the board takes action to resolve this crisis our jobs the hospital and the quality of health care in the Valley the community are at risk.
Perception of the leaders as violating norms fundamental to the identity of the organization.
Mr. Weight was exposing a lot of the issues that were going on albeit in a very tactful manner. He was conveying information in regard to the losses you cant hide... A lot were fundamental.But chopping Mr. Weight out of the picture was like taking the ax and swinging right at the heart of the hospital. It was basically fundamentally the worst blunder he Mr. Marinaro could have ever done! It was! It was termination! That was the last final straw.
10 Collective Fragmentation
The clear identification of the leaders as outsiders to the main body of the hospital collective.
Never in 23 years have I taken a stand against something at this institution. But this is dangerous. We cant just stand still. We are concerned about saving our hospital.
Disagreement within the collective over the propriety of being offended.
Wake up! I dont understand how any employee who has worked hard and contributed to the success of the hospital would want to destroy all that we have achieved. Lets act like a team and be supportive of Mr. Marinaro.
11 The Downsizing
Apr-Jun 1998 Mr Weight. begins meetings with members of management about the hospitals financial situation. They consider alternatives and frame a plan.
25 Jun 1998 Mr. Weight announces a 10 layoff and hospital reorganization.
29 Jun 1998 Headline Job cuts irritate Valley
27 Jul 1998 Headline Layoffs painful needed
Three years later Very few employees remembered the layoffs.
12 Financial Performance The Revolution The Downsizing 13 The Downsizing Comments
People trusted Mr. Weight even though it the downsizing was difficult.
We trusted him. This was the last resort. If thats what he felt like he had to do then we were behind it.
A lot of people left with hard feelings after a while they could understand things and a lot of them came back.
14 The Downsizing
Organization in a state of forgivingness
Collective perception of the leader as having a strong moral character
Collective perception that the leaders presence appreciates the organizations identity
Collective solidarity with respect to the leader.
15 Leader as Morally Legitimate
Perception of the leader as having concern for the organization.
He cares so much about it the hospital. It is not for his gain.
Mr. Weight was not dedicated for himself. He is dedicated to the organization.
Perception of the leader as moral and trustworthy
Hes just a wonderful person has lots of integrity has lots of credibility.
There is an understanding that the top-level officials are ethical and will not do anything to hurt the employees or the organization.
16 Leader as Existential Appreciator
Perception of the leader as appreciating the wholeness of the organization.
He knows practically everyone by name it makes you feel like youre all one family.
The leaders presence is seen as enhancing the value of the organizations identity.
Sit with him in a budget its tough. Hes very intelligent and hes a real terrific mentor and you really look up to him. On the flip side hell... do the stuff hes embarrassed with and be very human. And you feel like youre part of something you cant replace.
The leader is seen as representing the ideal organizational member the essence of participation in the organization.
now its not just Mr. Weight because you have your other manager youre vice-president like Mr. J hes all over...talking to staff and all thatI think if you dont have that kind of approach. Youre not going to make it here.
17 Collective Solidarity
The leader is viewed as an integral part of the collective whole.
With Mr. Weight gone the medical staff has lost the one member of the administration we could count on Certainly we did not always agree with him but we could count on him.
Demonstration of willingness to sacrifice for the leader.
Had it not been for the Revolution the downsizing would have been much different.
18 State of Offense
Proposition Collective offense is a socially constructed state in response to an event(s) or action(s) that are attributable to a definitive actor or set of actors.
19 State of Forgivingness
Proposition Collective forgivingness as a state is a dispositional condition characterized by the collectives tendency not take offense at the actions of identifiable others.
Hannah Arendt (1958)
Trespassing is an everyday occurrence which is in the very nature of human actions constant establishment of new relationships within a web of relations and it needs forgiving dismissing in order to make it possible for life to go on by constantly releasing men from what they have done unknowingly.
Hannah Arendt (1958)
Forgiving is the only reaction which does not merely re-act but acts anew and unexpectedly unconditioned by the act which provoked it and therefore freeing from its consequences both the one who forgives and the one who is forgiven.
22 Collective Forgiveness
Proposition Collective forgiveness is the process of transforming an organization from a state of offense to the state of forgivingness with respect to a definitive actor or set of actors.
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