Partnership Principles Guiding our interactions with students
Making the change
Three case studies throughout the day
4 Types of assessment
Assessment OF Learning
How much have students learned as of a particular point in time (Summative)
Assessment FOR Learning
How can we use assessment information to help students learn more (Formative)
5 Formative Assessment
All those activities undertaken by teachers and by their students that provide information to be used as FEEDBACK to modify the teaching and learning activities in which they are engaged.
-- Black Wiliam 1998
6 Overview 7 Overview 8 We should assess to
Gather evidence to inform instructional decisions
Encourage students to try to learn
9 Expected benefits
Profound achievement gains for ALL students
Largest gains for low achievers gap reduction
Increased motivation to learn
10 Successful students
Optimism an expectation of a positive result
Strong desire to succeed
High level of effort
11 Failing students
Pessimism expect failure
A sense of futility hopelessness
Self-criticism in failure
Fear of risk taking
Frustration and anger
12 Old days
If a student gave up in hopelessness and stopped trying it was the students problem not the teachers or the schools
Accountability provide an opportunity to learn
13 Current practice
Society says to its schools
LEAVE NO CHILD BEHIND
Accountability Assure student learning
14 Think pair-share
Think of a bad assessment experience from your past. What made it bad How did you feel
15 Think pair-share
Now think of a positive assessment experience from your past. Why was it positive
16 Video Clip - Shirley Valentine
As you watch think about how Shirleys assessment experiences at school affect her.
17 QUICK WORDSMaxine K---------- you the poetwarned our workshop that Julythat you were tired and did not careto mask your words to studentsthose three days.I did not know a teachercould kill a confidence in wordsso quickly just with words. 18 You found the pain within my poema cliché. It was for you and so became for me. I learned from youthat day to distrust the heartssmall pouring in the nightbecause poetry is hard work. You were right it has taken me nine years since then to write four poems.This one is just to sayThat the power my words did not have thenYours did. Like mine they came too quickly.--Marilyn B. SmithWashington English Journal Spring 1990 19 Big Ideas
Assessments must be accurate
Results must be used effectively
These are key to make sure students react productively to assessment results.
20 Productive response to assessment results
I understand the results
I know what to do next
I choose to keep trying
21 Counterproductive response to assessment results
I dont understand
I dont know what to do now
Im no good at this anyway
I give up
22 New Idea
Formative assessment can and should be done by students as well as by teachers.
The key to improvement is how students and teachers use assessment information.
23 What can teachers do
Feedback in grading
Peer- and self-assessment
Formative use of summative tests
Black and Wiliam Working Inside the Black Box 2004
Most questions check only for basic knowledge and understanding.
The questions require repetition of memorized facts.
Teachers wait less than a second after asking a question.
Spend more time framing effective questions (plan ahead!).
Use Blooms taxonomy as a guide.
Increase wait time even if it feels uncomfortable.
Teachers learned more about students prior knowledge and misunderstandings.
Students learned a more thoughtful answer was required.
Students began to feel more comfortable offering answers even if they gave a wrong answer.
2. Feedback through grading
29 Feedback is most effective when it points out success and is designed to stimulate correction of errors relevant to the task.-- Bloom 30 Every time teachers give feedback to students they convey messages that affect students opinion of themselves their motivation and their achievement.- Dweck 1999 31 Grades as Feedback
Grading every piece of work is misdirected. A numerical grade does not show students how to improve their work. Further students ignore comments when grades are given.
-- Butler 1998
32 (No Transcript) 33 Feedback through grading
Grades have a negative impact on student learning.
Students dont pay attention to comments when scores are also given.
When teachers give comments only students focus more on improving their work.
Scores do not tell students how to improve.
34 Effective Descriptive Feedback
Describe features of the work or performance instead of giving a score or letter grade.
Relate it directly to learning targets and/or standards of quality.
Point out strengths areas for improvement and give specific information about how to improve.
Give students a chance to respond to comments.
Students engaged more productively in improving their work
More time devoted to revising selected assignments so that emphasis is on feedback for improvement
Reduced competition among students
New ways of recording grades/scores
A comprehensive review of research studies of feedback found that feedback improved performance in 60 of the studies. In the cases where feedback was not helpful the feedback turned out to be merely a judgment or grade with no indication of how to improve.
-- Black Harrison Lee Marshall Wiliam 2004
37 Praise as feedback
When we praise children for their intelligence we are telling them that this is the name of the game Look smart dont risk making mistakes. On the other hand when we praise children for the effort and hard work that leads to achievement they want to keep engaging in that process. They are not diverted from the task of learning by a concern with how smart they might -- or might not -- look.
-- Dweck 1999
38 Activity Descriptive or Evaluative Feedback 39 Record Keeping
How do you keep a grade book if you dont grade everything
3. Peer and
41 Peer and Self-Assessment
Students can achieve a learning goal only if they understand the goal.
Students must know what they need to do to reach the goal.
Students dont know how to think about their own work.
42 Peer and Self-Assessment
Develop clear learning targets in kid-friendly language.
Show students examples of good and bad work.
Use rubrics formally or traffic signal icon informally.
43 Clear learning targets The more teachers can show the relevance of what theyre doing to the life of the student the betterYou also have to make clear the goal of every lesson. The student must know what he or she is supposed to achieve at the end. -- Csikszentmihalyi 44 Whats a target
A learning target is any achievement expectation we hold for students. Its a statement of what we want the students to learn.
(This is usually now directed by state standards.)
45 Clear Appropriate Targets
Are the student learning targets stated
Are they clear
Is the match between the stated learning targets and what is on your assessment clear
Is there a clear connection between the learning targets and state/district standards (Hopefully yes on this one!)
46 Kinds of Achievement Targets
Master factual and procedural knowledge
Use knowledge to reason and solve problems
Demonstrate mastery of specific skills
Create quality projects
Acquire positive affect (disposition)
47 Examples of Targets
understands the concepts of absolute and relative errors in measurement.
establishes relationships based on evidence and logical argument
uses effective transitions between paragraphs
48 Examples of Targets
constructs a pictograph to represent information
Disposition (Positive Affects)
develops an appreciation for art
49 Converting Learning Targets to student-friendly language
Identify an important learning target
Identify word(s) needing clarification
Define the words
Rewrite the definition as an I can statement in terms students will understand
Try it out on students or a colleague and refine as needed
Include students in this process
50 The process in action
Students should be able to make predictions in text.
Word to be defined prediction
Prediction A statement saying that something will happen in the future.
Student-friendly language I can make predictions. This means I can use information from what I read to guess at what will happen next.
51 Your Turn
Select a key learning target from your content standards that would need to be rewritten in student-friendly language. Follow the process to convert it to student-friendly language.
Word(s) to be defined
Student friendly language I can _________. This means I can ___________________.
52 Analyze your own assessments for clear targets
1. Analyze your test item by item
Identify and write down what learning each item assesses.
2. Organize your learning targets into a test plan
Write down the target the number of questions assessing it on the test and the number of points available for each target.
3. Question your test plan Is this a representative sample of what you taught and what you expected students to learn
- Does the number of points for each learning target represent its relative importance within the whole Are some learning targets over-represented or under-represented
- Does the number of points for each target represent the amount of time you spent on it relative to the whole
- Are some of the targets you taught left out
4. Adjust your test plan
- As needed adjust the numbers in the of points column to reflect the amount of time you spent teaching each learning target and its importance in the content as a whole.
- As needed add or delete learning targets to reflect what you taught and what you deemed most important.
5. Draw conclusions about your assessment
- What does this tell you about the matches among whats written in your curriculum what you taught and what you assessed
55 Student self-assessment
Students look at examples of strong and weak work
Students discover where they fit on the rubric
Engaging in peer assessment and self-assessment is much more than just checking for errors or weaknesses. It involves making explicit what is normally implicit and thus it requires students to be active in their learning.
-- Black Wiliam
57 Informal self-assessment Traffic Icon
Green I get it everythings clear its completed.
Yellow Im not sure Im having some problems its partly completed.
Red I have no clue Im having lots of problems I havent even started.
58 Using Rubrics
Start slow they dont have to be difficult
Create key rubrics with colleagues (ex. writing math problem-solving etc.)
Dont be afraid to include students in the development process
59 Rubrics - Getting Started
1. Gather anonymous samples of strong and weak student work. Number the samples.
2. Sort the work into piles strong middle and weak. This can eventually lead to a three or five-point rubric.
60 Rubrics continued
3. Transfer all descriptions for strong samples and look for commonalities that refer to similar characteristics. (clusters)
4. Decide on a holistic vs. analytical rubric
61 Rubrics continued
If holistic write short descriptive statements for each cluster and group them under the heading strong
If analytical work with each cluster of skills separately to form the basis for each trait. Write short descriptive phrases to represent each main idea in each cluster
62 Rubrics continued
5. Use the same clusters as identified in the strong chart to group characteristics in the weak phrases. Weaknesses should be parallel to the strengths.
6. Follow the same procedure for creating the middle point.
7. Assign 2 and 4 to the examples of student work that fall between the descriptors.
63 Emilys Example 1
Computers are a thing of the future. They help us in thousands of ways. Computers are a help to our lives. They make things easier. They help us to keep track of information.
Computers are simple to use. Anyone can learn how. You do not have to be a computer expert to operate a computer. You just need to know a few basic things.
Computers can be robots that will change our lives. Robots are really computers! Robots do a lot of the work that humans used to do. This makes our lives much easier. Robots build cars and do many other tasks that humans used to do. When robots learn to do more they will take over most of our work. This will free humans to do other kinds of things. You can also communicate on computers. It is much faster than mail! You can look up information too. You can find information on anything at all on a computer.
Computers are changing the work and changing the way we work and communicate. In many ways computers are changing our lives and making our lives better and easier.
64 Emilys Example 2
So there I was my face aglow with the reflection on my computer screen trying to come up with the next line for my essay. Writing it was akin to Chinese water torture as I could never seem to end it. It dragged on and on a never-ending babble of stuff.
Suddenly unexpectedly - I felt an ending coming on. I could wrap this thing up in four or five sentences and this dreadful assignment would be over. Id be free.
I had not saved yet and decided I would do so now. I clasped the slick white mouse in my hand slid it over the mouse pad and watched as the black arrow progressed toward the file menu. By accident I clicked the mouse button just to the left of paragraph 66. I saw a flash and the next thing I knew I was back to square one. I stared at the blank screen for a moment in disbelief. Where was my essay My ten-billion-page masterpiece Gone! No - that couldnt be! Not after all the work I had done! Would a computer be that unforgiving That unfeeling Didnt it care about me at all
I decided not to give up hope just yet. The secret was to remain calm. After all my file had to be somewhere - right Thats what all the manuals say - Its in there somewhere. I went back to the file menu much more carefully this time. First I tried a friendly sounding category called Find File. No luck there I hadnt give the file a name.
Ah then I had a brainstorm. I could simply go up to Undo. Yes that would be my savior! A simple click of a button and my problem would be solved! I went to Undo but it looked a bit fuzzy. Not a good sign. That means there is nothing to undo. Dont panic dont panic
I decided to try to exit the program not really knowing what I would accomplish by this but feeling more than a little desperate. Next I clicked on the icon that would allow me back in to work processing. A small sign appeared telling me that my program was being used by another user. Another user Whats it talking about Im the only user you idiot! Or at least Im trying to be a user! Give me my paper back! Right now!
I clicked on the icon again and again - to no avail. ClickclickclickclickclickCLICKCLICKCLICK! !! Without warning a thick cloud of smoke began to rise from the back of the computer. I didnt know whether to laugh or cry. Sighing I opened my desk drawer and pulled out a tablet and pen. It was going to be a long day.
67 Emilys story
Share Emily Video
4. Formative Use of Summative Tests
69 Formative use of Summative Tests
Students tend to use passive reviewing techniques.
Students are not always sure what they need to study.
Summative grades do not help students improve.
70 Formative Use of Summative Tests
Make sure assessments are accurate.
Have students reflect on their tests in order to see strengths and weaknesses.
Have students prepare for tests by generating and answering their own questions.
71 Possible Assessment Methods
Selected Response/Short Answer
(Multiple-choice true/false matching fill in the blank label a diagram)
When selecting an assessment method choose the one that will provide the most accurate information with the highest degree of efficiency.
73 Self-reflection and goal setting
Students use test plans as a basis for evaluation of strengths and areas of study.
Students complete self-evaluation and goal-setting form on the basis of test or quiz results.
74 Formative Use of Summative Tests
Assessments are more accurate and efficient.
Summative tests become part of the learning process.
Students are better prepared for tests.
75 Students must know
Where am I going
Where am I now
How can I close the gap
76 Where am I going
Students must know the learning targets
Teachers must communicate them to students in kid-friendly language
Students must know assessment expectations (ex rubrics)
77 Where am I now
Teachers must provide accurate classroom assessments that match the learning targets
Students must learn to self-assess
78 How can I close the gap
Teachers need to provide descriptive feedback to students
Formative use of summative tests
Design lessons that focus on one aspect of quality at a time
Engage students in self-reflection and let them keep track of and share their learning (portfolios etc.)
79 CALIFORNIA I went down to my Grandmas house in California and I got to ride hourses I swimmed went to a party I went shopping saw old friends I went to the new Merine World and I had a lot of fun. I drove down there in a car with my uncle and drove back with him. He went down to visit his mom and dad so it worked out pretty good. I use to live in California till a year ago. it was a 30 min. drive away from San Francico I live in Walnut Creek. I went to school at Walnut Acresfor 4 years sense 2 grade. Then moved to Oregon and we bought a gas station. When I got to go I was glad and happy my mom let me. I HAD FUN!Grade 6 80 A LITTLE MOUSE STATUE Every time I walk in my room or pass my dresser I see something thats very special to me. It is a little statue of a mouse. His tiny hands are expanded as far apart as they allow themselves to be. And at the bottom of the statue it reads I love you this much.I believe I was four years old when my grandma took me over to her bedroom closet one day and got my statue off the very top shelf. Then with extreme care she unwrapped a small object and handed it to me. It was the mouse statue. Ever since then even now I have him placed on my dresser to admire. Every time I pass my dresser or stand next to my dresser dressing or putting on earrings I think of my grandma. 81 I think of the way my grandma always expanded her arms and said I LOVE YOU THIS MUCH just like the little mouse statue does. And Id do the same. Then wed hug each other followed by enormous kisses. Her gentle and kind smile the glitter in her eyes and the way she allways stuck up for me if I was in a fight with my mom are all things I remember about her. Today she still takes me special places and shes always their if I need someone to talk to or get advice from. I will always treat my statue with the most of respect just like my grandma asked me to. And I will always treasure its unique way of making me feel close to my grandma even when shes not around every time I glance at him. And who knows maybe one day Ill be giving him to my granddaughter!!!Grade 6 82 I have become a better writer this year. I have learned to put more focus in my writing and stick with one topic. I think about my topic before I write and I share my writing in a writing group. That is something I did not like to do at first but now I do.I think my writing has a lot more voice now. Voice is the part of your writing that shows how you feel about your topic because the thoughts and feelings come from your heart. This year we read Charlottes Web and that is a book that I think has a lot of voice. I try to find just the right word to say what I mean and not just the first word that comes into my mind. The way I have grown the most is that I like to write a lot more than I used to especially poems. I think I could be a poet if I wanted to and I think my writing shows that.
83 For students to improve they must
Know what high quality work looks like
Be able to objectively compare their work to the standard
Have a store of strategies to make work better based on their observations
--Royce Sadler 1989
84 Classroom Assessment FOR Student Learning
85 Day 2 - Agenda
Recap Day 1/Answer questions
What do urban students say about good teachers
Case study 1
High vs. low risk activities
Teaching styles- whats yours
Partnership Principles Guiding our interactions with students
Case Study 2
The change process
Case Study 3
86 Using formative assessment
Feedback through grading
Peer and self-assessment
Formative use of summative assessments
87 Students must know
Where am I going
- learning targets
- assessment criteria (rubrics)
Where am I now
- accurate assessments
- peer and self-assessment
How do I close the gap
- descriptive feedback
- formative use of summative tests
88 What do urban students say about good teaching Interviewees described mean good teachers and mean bad teachers funny good teachers and funny bad teachers and boring good teachers and boring bad teachers. If a teacher had the six qualities that students identified as those of a good teacher then demeanor sense of humor and charisma -- as well as any other personal characteristic -- were unimportant. -- Corbett Wilson 2002 89 Good teachers
Make sure that students do their work
Control the classroom
Are willing to help students whenever and however the students want help
Explain assignments and content clearly
Vary the classroom routine
Take the time to get to know the students and their circumstances
90 Case Study 1 91
Students have to change from behaving as passive recipients of the knowledge offered by the teacher to becoming active learners who can take responsibility for and manage their own learning.
-- Black Harrison Lee Marshall Wiliam 2004
92 High Risk vs. Low Risk
Teaching methods can be classified according to the amount of risk they entail and how much they facilitate active learning. Risk involves such things as the potential for particular methods to fail generate controversy take up too much class time become unpopular with student and colleagues or to not accomplish the goals for which they were designed.
-- Bonwell and Eison 1991
93 High vs. Low Risk methods
Longer to complete
Less structured/ unknown variables
New to students (and/or colleagues)
Familiar to students (and colleagues)
94 Low Active methods
Show a film or video for the period
Lecture the entire class
Use a computershow to present a topic
Read important passages from the text to class
Give a lecture to summarize important points covered in the unit
Invite a guest lecturer of unknown quality
Have students ask questions at the beginning of class to use to organize a lecture for the session
Show a film or video you have not previewed
-- Grasha 2002
95 High Active methods
Skits that illustrate content designed by students
Presentations by students
Students interview guest speaker
Unstructured small group discussion
Students design and run session
Structured group activity
Pairs of students discuss ideas
Student debates on issues that are prepared in advance
In-class writing assignments
Structured small group discussion
For the teachers courage is necessarymany teachers described the new approach as scary because they felt they were going to lose control of their classes. Toward the end of the project they spoke not of losing control but of sharing responsibility for the students learning with the class.
-- Black Harrison Lee Marshall Wiliam 2004
Impact of student-involved assessment
from teachers and students
98 Teaching Styles
What is your
How does it impact
Partnership involves relationships between equals. Each persons thoughts and beliefs are held to be valuable although each individual is different. All participants in a learning session are recognized as equal partners and consequently no ones view is more important or valuable than any one elses.
Because partners are equal they make individual choices and make decisions collaboratively. Student choice is implicit in every communication of content and to the greatest extent possible the process used to learn the content.
Partnership is multi-vocal rather than univocal and all individuals in a partnership require opportunities to express their point of view. Indeed a primary benefit of a partnership is that each individual has access to a multiplicity of perspectives rather than the singular perspective of the teacher.
Offering students the freedom to consider ideas before adopting them is central to the principle of reflection. Indeed reflective thinkers by definition have to be free to choose or reject ideas or they simply are not thinkers at all. Reflection holds the potential of providing an opportunity for students to think about and to ask profound questions about what how why and who.
In a partnership one individual does not impose dominate or control. Partners engage in conversation learning together as they explore ideas. It means that teachers embrace dialogue rather than lecture. Teachers avoid manipulation engage students in conversation about content and think and learn with students as everyone moves through content being discussed.
The purpose of partnership is to enable individuals to have more meaningful experiences. In partnership relationships meaning arises when people reflect on ideas and then put those actions into practice. It means that teachers should offer numerous opportunities for participants to reflect on the practical implications of new content being learned.
In a partnership both individuals learn from one another. Partners bring new ideas and ways at looking at situations learning together as they explore each others ideas. It means that teachers also learn from students.
106 The Change Process
Why is change so difficult
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