For People Who Are Blind or Hard-of-Hearing or Deaf
For People with Low-Vision Color Blindness Physical Disabilities Language or Cognitive Disabilities
For People in General
Tools for Access - Types of ATs
Equivalent Access Versus Alternative Access
Direct Access Versus Compatible Access
11 Users of screen readers
There are a number of things that application software developers can do to make it possible for people using screen readers to detect and figure out what is on the screen. These include
using the system tools wherever possible to draw and erase all on-screen text and to display all cursors and pointers
using the operating systems standard controls whenever possible
drawing tools in toolbars palettes and menus as separate items (rather than one big graphic). This makes it possible to identify the number location and shape of the individual tools so they can be identified and named
12 Increase compatibility with screen readers by
using a special technique to make the text known to screen reading software if the text is embedded in a graphic image.
dragging system cursors with you (even if invisible) when custom highlight or focus techniques are used.
using consistent or predictable screen and dialog layouts.
avoiding use of help balloons that disappear if the focus changes unless there is a way to lock them in place so that the focus (e.g. the cursor) can be moved to read them.
using single column text whenever possible.
giving controls logical names even if the name is not visible on the screen. (Screen readers can access this information and use it to describe the type and function of the control on the screen.)
providing keyboard access to all tools menus and dialog boxes.
13 Since screen readers can only read text
(or name separately identifiable icons or tools) it is a good idea to
avoid unlabeled hot spots on pictures as a control scheme (unless redundant with menu selection).
avoid non-text menu items when possible or incorporate visible or invisible cues. (Screen readers can see text that is written to screen in an invisible color.)
avoid non-redundant graphic tool bars.
Finally documentation and training materials can be more accessible when
all documentation and on-line help is designed to be understood by reading the text only (e.g. information presented in pictures and graphics is also presented with a description in text).
synchronized running audio descriptions for all information is presented as an animated graphic or movie.
15 For users with hearing impairments
the accessibility of software can increase when
all auditory information is also provided in a visual form.
all visual cues are noticeable if one is not looking directly at the screen.
a ShowSounds feature is supported. (A ShowSounds feature allows a user to specify that all sound should be accompanied by a visual event including a caption for any spoken text.)
In addition product support people must be reachable via text telephones (TTYs).
16 Types of Assistive Technologies
Voice recognition software
17 Some drivers
User rights - legal requirements
18 The guideline sections of the document
common accessibility problems of each technology.
practices that learning system developers can implement to enhance accessibility for all users.
practices content creators and/or educators can implement to enhance accessibility for all users.
resources which provide best practices and solutions in use.
19 6 Principles for Online Distributed Learning
Allow for Customization Based on User Preference
Provide Equivalent Access to Auditory and Visual Content Based on User Preference
Provide Complete Keyboard Access and Compatibility with AT
Provide Context and Orientation Information
Follow IMS Specifications and Other Relevant Specifications Standards and/or Guidelines
Consider the Use of XML (Extensible Mark-up Language)
20 Customisation based on user preferences
Some examples of items that should be customizable by the users include
Changes to the display and characteristics of elements such as
font font style font color and font size
cursors size style and blink rate
size of text and images including video
screen layout colors and backgrounds
Changes to features such as
timing of events
21 Consider using XML because
it is a license-free platform independent W3C technology
a reliable data structure that any application can read and parse. This data can then easily transform from one XML schema to another.
XML provides a simple way to share data between computer systems from multiple companies.
XML objects are portable and can be used in many different types of applications.
XML syntax makes it much easier for non-specialists to participate in the design of new markup languages and to mix markup languages (see mathML and XHTML as an example).
22 Guidelines for Flexible Media Delivery
23 Asynchronous Comms Collab. Tools
Threaded Message Boards
Organizers Schedulers and Calendars
24 Accessible Interfaces and Interactive Envs
Navigating the Interface
Interactive Exercises Drag-and-Drop Exercises Simulations and Timed Tests
DVDs Consumer Electronics and Handheld Devices
25 Testing and Assessment
Testing and Assessment Challenges
Principles and Guidelines - General
26 Topic Specific Access
The Problem 2x2 4x 3
Chunking or Simplified Reading of Mathematical Expressions
Inaccessible Mathematical Notation
Encoding Mathematical Expressions
Other Possibilities Particularly for Localized Applications
Current Techniques for Making Graphical Information Accessible
Haptic Image Sources
Geography and Maps
32 Legislative Imperative
US legislation Rehab 508 Telecommunication Section 255 and individual educational jurisdictions
Canadian Human Rights Laws
European Union Laws ...
33 Scope of Original Working Group
IMS policy on accessibility
Extensions and additions to existing specifications
Guidelines for Access
34 Extensions / Additions to Existing Specs
Learner Profile (LIP)
35 Access and Inclusive Learning
Separate content and structure from presentation to allow flexibility in presentation
Separate function from input method to allow flexibility in control
Provide information in more than one modality
The earlier the better
Integration rather than add on
Core rather than peripheral
The curb cut advantage
36 W3C Guidelines
Accessibility related guidelines
QA and Certification
- for authors authoring tools user agents
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