How effectively did nationalists promote their cause in Germany between 1815 and 1850 (2005)
Why did nationalism grow in Germany between 1815 and 1850 (2004)
To what extent was there a real growth in national consciousness in Germany between 1815 and 1850 (2003)
3 Growth of Nationalism - Sample Questions
Assess the importance of economic factors in the growth of nationalism in Germany during the period 1815-1850 (2001)
How important was cultural nationalism to the growth of national feeling in Germany between 1815-1850 (2000)
4 Types Of Questions
There are two main types of
Why did nationalist feeling grow
This type of question will ask you to look at the main factors.
The question may ask how important was a particular factor or it maybe more general.
Whichever way the question is phrased always indicate what is the most important factor!
5 Why Did Nationalist Feeling Grow
This marked the first stirrings of
nationalist feeling. The reorganisation
of the German states into the
Confederation of the Rhine was a first
small step towards unification. Without
this future change would not have been
6 Why Did Nationalist Feeling Grow
This brought the states together
and encouraged them to work
together in small ways. It also
made them more aware of what
they had in common although
they were keen to preserve their
independence. Without this future
steps would not have been possible.
7 Why Did Nationalist Feeling Grow
Marked the beginning of a
common sense of identity among
Germans due to the spread of
nationalist and liberal ideas. It would
take political change in order to
achieve unification. Although shared
by a minority and suppressed by the
German Confederation these ideas
would resurface again in 1848.
8 Why Did Nationalist Feeling Grow
Zollverein Economic Nationalism
Brought the German states together
economically and made them surrender
a small part of their independence for
economic benefits. The next obvious
step would be political union as many
states recognised the benefits of co-
operating together for the common
9 Why Did Nationalist Feeling Grow
First major attempt to achieve political
union through democratic change.
This was clear evidence of the extent of
nationalist feeling among the German
states. Attempts to achieve a united
Germany failed not due to a lack of
support among Germans but due to
key figures at the time who were keen
to preserve the status quo. It was only a
matter of time before unification took place.
10 Types Of Questions
There are two main types of
To what extent was there a growth in nationalist feeling
You need to look at each of the main factors.
However you need to weigh up the extent to which there was a growth in nationalist feeling.
11 To what extent was there a growth in nationalist feeling
By 1850 a dramatic increase in nationalist feeling was evident.
Nationalist feeling had developed from being anti-French in the early 1800s to a definite sense of Germany identity by 1850.
Nationalist feeling had spread among wide sections of the population.
This had led to the first demands for political union in 1848.
Although unification was not achieved nationalist feeling did not dwindle or disappear.
12 Napoleonic Occupation
States reorganised into 39 Confederation of Rhine McKichan quote.
Disillusioned by Napoleonic rule Thomson quote
Joined together in 1813 War of Liberation
First demands for political union but not widespread
13 German Confederation
Congress of Vienna 1815 keeps status quo
Renamed German Confederation
States agree to a regular Parliament and will defend each other if attacked.
Independence of states maintained.
Austria strongest state was a major barrier to unification.
Not inevitable that united Germany would be created.
14 Cultural Nationalism
Started before 1815 with Romantic movement.
Thinkers and writers looked to the past.
Encouraged common sense of identity.
Metternich concerned about spread of nationalist/liberal ideas through student societies.
1819 Carlsbad Decrees tried to stop spread of ideas.
Nationalist ideas limited to educated town-dwellers didnt matter to vast majority of Germans.
Prussian keen to develop economically simplified tax system to encourage sale of Prussian goods.
By 1831 25 states were part of the Zollverein customs union.
Trade and transport improved.
Power of Prussia increased/Austria excluded.
William Carr quotes mighty lever of unification.
Nationalist argued that political union should be next.
16 1848 Revolutions
Revolution spread throughout Europe including Prussia.
Demands for united Germany.
1849 Frankfurt Parliament met to discuss issue.
Decided on a Kleindeutsch union without Austria.
Prussian King refused to lead a united Germany.
Desire for a united Germany dwindled out leaders of states reasserted control over their own territories.
As long as Austria continued to oppose unification it would be difficult to achieve.
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