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Music of the Middle East

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Title: Music of the Middle East


1
Music of the Middle East
2
We will watch a BBC documentary called Breaking
the Silence
3
The music of the Middle East encompasses the
musical systems of Iran (Persia), the Arab
diaspora, and Turkey
4
Each region shares five traditions similar to
Western music
5
Islamic cultural and musical values affect what
is and is not considered music
6
There are three prominent features that unite
Middle Eastern musical culture
7
1. Vocal and compositional styles are derived
from the recitation of the Holy Koran
8
2. Music creates a kind of ecstatic, emotional
bond between performer and audience
9
3. The suite, or collection of individual
pieces played together, is the major unifying
compositional principle
10
In the Middle East, music is generally considered
an indulgence and therefore not good
11
In the Middle East amateur musicians maintain a
higher status than professionals
12
In Western culture, improvised music has a tonal
and structural framework
Arabic music has maqam
13
Ensemble music has a special kind of monophony
called heterophony
14
What are the differences between Middle Eastern
and Indian ensemble textures?
15
Islam is the most distinctive feature of the
Middle East as a cultural area
16
Religious ambivalence has not prohibited musical
activity
17
Perhaps the most obvious difference is the
definition of music, which is very narrow
18
On a sliding scale, between khandan and musiqi,
where can we place different types of Western
music, from church hymns to punk rock?
19
Professional musicians are mostly specialists
20
The scholarly study of music is admired
21
Chanting of the Holy Koran, CD 1 track 4
22
There is a broad similarity between Iranian
traditions and those of Arabic and Turkish areas
23
There are numerous instruments common to Iranian
music
24
The tar is a heavy, long-necked lute with frets
25
The kamancheh (spiked fiddle)
26
The santour (hammered dulcimer)
27
The violin (played in the Western fashion)
28
What are the similarities and differences between
the Middle Eastern chordophones and chordophones
found elsewhere throughout the word?
29
The ney (bamboo flute)
30
The dombak or zarb (goblet-shaped drum)
31
In Iran, learning classical music and learning to
improvise are more or less synonymous
32
What are some similarities between Middle Eastern
and Indian music improvisation?
33
Scales and arpeggios of Western music are similar
to the radif
34
Radif is the basic repertoire used as the
foundation for composition and improvisation
35
A typical Iranian performance ideally consists of
five parts
36
Chahar Mezrab in Mahour, performed on santour.
Textbook CD1, track 5.
37
An Avaz in Shur. Textbook CD1, track 7
38
Radif of Nour-Ali BoroumandCD 1 track 8
39
6 excerpts based on Daramad CD1 track 11
40
Although each version is individual, the
essential characteristics of the daramad can be
heard
41
A performance in any maqam may modulate to
another maqam
42
Taqsim NahawandCD1 track 10
43
Illustrations of Major MaqamsCD1 track 6
44
Music of the dervishes is metric and ceremonial
45
Popular music is typically a female singer
accompanied by a small ensemble of instruments
46
Some of these singers, like Umm Kulthum, went
beyond the music halls
47
Ya Zalimni CD1, track 9
48
Summary
49
The Middle East encompasses a large, diverse
geographical and cultural area
50
Middle Eastern music generally is highly
improvised and heterophonic
51
Vocal and instrumental music is generally highly
ornamented
52
Vocal music predominates
53
The primary instrument is the oud, a type of lute
54
The most common musical form is the suite
55
The best music is thought to inspire a
trance-like, higher experience of life
56
Maqam are used as the basis of all melodic
creation
57
There is a strict hierarchy of music and
performers
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