Concerned with opening up education to all emphasis on character building rather than vocational training.
Public teacher at 22
In his fifties he became a magistrate and a minister of justice.
At 56 he sought to spread his doctrines by traveling extensively with some of his students.
He urged the practice of gravity generosity of soul sincerity earnestness and kindness.
Impact- beliefs developed into a philosophy -unparalleled impact on Chinese life and many other Eastern Asian countries
Official state doctrine of most Chinese emperors from 2nd Century B.C. until overthrow in 1911.
Major part of elementary and intermediate schooling
Basis for civil service exams for government positions
3 The Analects
Deals with all social units family- state
Lays out the central ideas of government in Confucian thought.
Use of rhetoric analogies and aphorisms
4 The Analects
The Master said To learn and at due times to
repeat what one has learnt is that not after all a
pleasure That friends should come to one from
afar is this not after all delightful To remain un-
soured even though ones merits are unrecognized
by others is that not after all what is expected of a
Do not expect recognition
Qualities of a gentleman- moral way to live life
5 The Analects
The Master said A young mans duty is to be-
have well to his parents at home and to his elders
abroad to be cautious in giving promises and
punctual in keeping them to have kindly feelings
towards everyone but seek the intimacy of the
good. If when all that is done he has any energy
to spare then let him study the polite arts.
moral behavior and family structure
Keep all promises cautious in giving them
Kind to all but only seek close relationships that are good
Polite Arts The Book of Songs book of Chinese poetry
6 The Analects
The Master said (good man) does not
grieve that other people do not recognize his merits.
His only anxiety is lest he should fail to recognize theirs.
Do not expect praise or recognition
Should focus on recognizing others merits
7 The Analects
The Master said He who rules by moral force
is like the pole-star which remains in its place
while all the lesser stars do homage to it.
Rule by moral force and power will remain
Pole- star North Star- leads the way
All will willingly follow
8 The Analects
The Master said Govern the people by regula-
tions keep order among them by chastisements
and they will flee from you and lose all self-
respect. Govern them by moral force keep order
among them by ritual and they will keep their self-
respect and come to you of their own accord.
Regulate the people
If keep them confined they wont obey
Rule by moral force and they will respect themselves and you and want to be under your rule
Central idea of government
9 The Analects
The Master said A gentleman can see a
questions from all sides without bias. The small man is biased and can see a question from only one side.
Gentleman embodies central idea in Confucian thought
Virtuous and moralistic
10 The Analects
The Master said You shall I teach you what
knowledge is When you know a thing to
recognize that you know it and when you do not
know a thing to recognize that you do not know it. That is knowledge.
Knowledge is unbiased
Admit when you dont know
11 The Analects
The Master said High office filled by men of narrow views ritual preformed without reverence the forms of mourning observed without grief- these are things I cannot bear to see!
Through rituals and social morality that order will be upheld
12 The Analects
The Master said In old days men studied for the sake of self-improvement nowadays men study In order to impress other people.
Confucian social philosophy looks back to the Golden Age
Social relations were conducted in a proper fashion.
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