4 History of Markup Documents recorded using paper and pen Typesetters formatting documents Tools used by typesetters to format a document 5 Markup Language
A Markup language defines the rules that help to add meaning to the content and structure of documents.
They are classified as
Stylistic Markup It determines the presentation of the document
Structure Markup It defines the structure of the document
Semantic Markup It determines the content of the document
Generalized Markup Language (GML) is the system of formatting documents.
GML was fine-tuned and came to be known as Standard Generalized Markup Language (SGML).
SGML is the source of origin of all markup languages
7 Features of SGML
It describes markup language which allows authors to create their own tags that relate to their content.
It needs a separate file that will contain all the rules for the language for its interpretation
A SGML application is markup language derived from SGML.
HTML is the most famous markup language derived from SGML.
It was created to mark up technical papers so that they could be transferred across different platforms for the scientific community.
It is now also used by those non-scientific users who are concerned about their documents presentation.
9 Drawbacks of HTML
Fixed tag set
Presentation technology does not relate to the contents
It is flat
HTML is not international
Data interchange is impossible
Does not have a robust linking mechanism
HTML is not reusable
10 HTML and XML code Examples XML Code HTML Code
CLIENT ID 100
COMPANY XYZ Corp.
Street Adress 25th St.
11 XML -1
XML stands for Extensible Markup Language.
It overcomes all the drawbacks of HTML.
It allows the user to define their own set of tags and also makes it possible for others to understand it.
It is more flexible than HTML.
It inherits the features of SGML and combines it with the features of HTML.
It is a smaller version of SGML.
12 XML -2
XML is a metalanguage and it describes other languages.
The data contained in an XML file can be displayed in different ways.
It can also be offered to other applications for further processing.
Style sheets help transform structured data into different HTML views. This enables data to be displayed on different browsers.
13 XML Architecture - 1
XML supports three-tier architecture for handling and manipulating data.
It can be generated from existing databases using a scalable three-tier model.
XML tags represent the logical structure of data that can be interpreted and used in various ways by different applications.
The middle-tier is used to access multiple databases and translate data into XML.
14 XML Architecture -2 15 XML A Universal data format
HTML is a single markup language but XML is a family of markup languages.
Any type of data can be easily defined in XML.
XML is popular because it supports a wide range of applications and is easy to use.
XML has a structured data format which allows it to store complex data
16 Benefits of XML
The three-tier architecture has easier scalability and better security.
The benefits of XML are classified into the following
17 Business Benefits
Allows businesses to define data formats in XML
Provides tools to read write and transform data between XML and other formats
XML inside a single application
Powerful flexible and extensible language
Supports different users and channels like digital TV phone web and multimedia kiosks
18 Technological Benefits Separation of data and presentation Extensibility Technological Benefits Semantic information Re-use of data 19 XML Advantages
Eases information exchange
Output format independence
No fixed set of markup tags
20 XML Document Structure
An XML document is composed of sets of entities identified by unique names.
All documents begin with a root or document entity.
Entities are aliases for more complex functions.
Documents are logically composed of declarations elements comments character references and processing instructions.
21 Well formed and Valid Documents
An XML document is considered as well formed if a minimum set of requirements defined in the XML 1.0 specification are satisfied.
The requirements ensure that correct language terms are used in the right manner .
A valid XML document is a well-formed XML document which conforms to the rules of a Document Type Definition (DTD).
DTD defines the rules that an XML markup in the XML document must follow.
22 Parsers - 1
Parsers help the computer interpret an XML file.
Their are two types of parsers
Non Validating parser
23 Parsers - 2 Data tree 24 Creating an XML Document
To create an XML document
State an XML declaration
Create a root element
Create the XML code
Verify the document
25 Stating an XML Declaration
Standalone and encoding attributes are optional only the version number is mandatory
Standalone is the external declaration
Encoding - specifies the character encoding used by the author
XML 1.0 version is default
26 Creating a Root Element
There can only be one root element
It describes the function of the document
Every XML document must have a root element
Example encodingUTP-8 27 Creating the XML Code
It is the process of creating our own elements and attributes as required by our application.
Elements are the basic units of XML content.
Tags tell the user agent to do something to the content encased between the start and end tag.
Opening Tag Content Closing Tag
Aptech Ltd Parts of an element Element 28 Comments
This is information for the understanding of the user and is to be ignored by the processor.
The example given will display only the name TOM CRUSIE and others are treated as comments. Example TOM CRUISE 29 Processing Instruction
A processing information is a bit of information meant for the application using the XML document.
These instructions are directly passed to the application using the parser.
The XML declaration is also a processing agent.
Instruction information Name of application 30 Character Data
The text between the start and end tags is defined as character data.
Character data may be any legal (Unicode).
Character data is classified into
It stands for parsed character data.
PCDATA is text that will be parsed by a Parser.
Tags inside the text will be treated as markup and entities will be expanded.
It means character data.
It will not be parsed by the Parser.
CDATA are used to make it convenient to include large blocks of special characters.
The character string is not allowed within a CDATA block as it will signal the end of the CDATA block.
TOM CRUISE tom_at_usa.com
Example 33 Entities
Entities are used to avoid typing long pieces of text repeatedly within a document.
There are two categories of entities
by an entity
represented by an entity
34 Examples of Entities
An example of Parameter entities
An example of a General entity
Suite 12 Paris France
35 The DOCTYPE declarations
The declaration follows the XML declaration in an XML document.
...declare the entities here....
...body of the document....
Example firstFloor 15 Downing St Floor 1 secondFloor 15 Downing St Floor 2 thirdFloor 15 Downing St Floor 3 36 Attributes
An attribute gives information about an element.
Attributes are embedded in the element start tag.
An attribute consists of an attribute name and attribute value.
Example SONY count10IBM 37 XML Well-formed rules
All XML elements must have a closing tag
XML tags are case sensitive
All XML elements must be properly nested
All XML documents must have a root element
Attribute values must always be quoted
38 XML Element Naming
Names can contain letters numbers and other characters
Names must not start with a number or punctuation character
Names must not start with the letters xml (or XML or Xml ..)
Names cannot contain spaces
PowerShow.com is a leading presentation/slideshow sharing website. Whether your application is business, how-to, education, medicine, school, church, sales, marketing, online training or just for fun, PowerShow.com is a great resource. And, best of all, most of its cool features are free and easy to use.
You can use PowerShow.com to find and download example online PowerPoint ppt presentations on just about any topic you can imagine so you can learn how to improve your own slides and presentations for free. Or use it to find and download high-quality how-to PowerPoint ppt presentations with illustrated or animated slides that will teach you how to do something new, also for free. Or use it to upload your own PowerPoint slides so you can share them with your teachers, class, students, bosses, employees, customers, potential investors or the world. Or use it to create really cool photo slideshows - with 2D and 3D transitions, animation, and your choice of music - that you can share with your Facebook friends or Google+ circles. That's all free as well!
For a small fee you can get the industry's best online privacy or publicly promote your presentations and slide shows with top rankings. But aside from that it's free. We'll even convert your presentations and slide shows into the universal Flash format with all their original multimedia glory, including animation, 2D and 3D transition effects, embedded music or other audio, or even video embedded in slides. All for free. Most of the presentations and slideshows on PowerShow.com are free to view, many are even free to download. (You can choose whether to allow people to download your original PowerPoint presentations and photo slideshows for a fee or free or not at all.) Check out PowerShow.com today - for FREE. There is truly something for everyone!