Title: Chemical Equations and Reaction Stoichiometry
1 Chemical Equations and Reaction Stoichiometry
2 Chemical Reactions 3 Physical State Representation
These representations will commonly be observed in chemical equations.
4 Chemical Equations
There is no loss in the quantity of matter from a chemical reaction. This is the _____ __ __________ __ _____.
What is the total mass on both sides of the chemical reaction shown previously
A balanced chemical equation must have the _____ of each kind of atom on both sides of the equation.
Smallest possible whole-number coefficients.
5 Balancing Chemical Equations
__Al(s) __Br2(l) ___Al2Br6(s) (covalent)
__C3H8(g) __O2(g) __CO2(g) __H2O(g)
__C4H10(l) __O2(g) __CO2(g) __H2O(g)
__P4(s) __Cl2(g) __PCl3(s)
Demo On demo. CD
Be sure to balance equations before proceeding with calculations.
6 Calculations Based on Balanced Chemical Equations
The ______ in a balanced equation represent the relative ratio of moles or molecules (formula units).
Calculations utilize a series of _________ to obtain the desired answer.
Make sure that the ________ cancel.
7 Calculations Based on Balanced Chemical Equations
Convert grams to moles (using molar mass)
Convert moles to moles (from balanced equation)
This can also be molecules. Why
Convert moles to grams (using molar mass)
This is the general steps that will be followed to solve equations.
8 Solving Problems from Chemical Equations
CH4(g) 2O2(g) CO2(g) 2H2O(g)
How many CH4 molecules required to react completely with 82 molecules of O2
__C4H10(l) __O2(g) __CO2(g) __H2O(g)
How many O2 molecules required to react completely with 48 molecules of C4H10
9 Solving Problems from Chemical Equations
__Fe2O3(s) __CO(g) __Fe(s) __CO2(g)
How many moles of Fe2O3 are required to react completely with 4.9 moles of CO
What mass of CO2 can be produced from 0.540 moles of Fe2O3 with excess CO
__P4(s) __Cl2(g) __PCl3(s)
How many moles of PCl3 can be produced from 1.48 moles of Cl2(g) Assume the P4 is in excess.
How many grams of PCl3 can be produced from 42.3 grams of P4
10 More Problems
__NH3 __O2 __NO __H2O
How many grams of NO can be produced from 17.80 grams of O2 NH3 is in excess.
How many molecules of NH3 are required to produce 7.31 10-10 grams of H2O
11 Limiting Reactant
In a typical reaction there is one substance that is generally used up first. This reactant is termed as the limiting reactant since is limits how much product will be formed. The reactants will be in excess.
DEMO Setting a table for six people using 10 plates 8 spoon and 5 forks.
What is limiting and what is in excess This is the same with a reaction.
12 Limiting Reactant
DEMO CD (5-4) NH3 formation
Method for calculating the limiting reactant
Calculate the amount of product that would be formed from each reactant.
The one that produces the least amount of product is the limiting reactant/reagent.
13 Limiting Reactant
What is the maximum amount of sulfur dioxide that can be produced from 95.6 grams of carbon disulfide and 110 grams of oxygen
CS2 O2 CO2 SO2
What is the maximum amount of HCl that can be produced from 28.2 grams of NaCl 23.8 grams of H2O and 32.1 grams of SiO2
NaCl H2O SiO2 HCl Na2SiO3
14 Limiting Reactant
Determine the amount of Cu3P formed if 225 grams of copper is reacted with 65.0 grams of P4. What is the limiting reactant
___Cu ___P4 ____Cu3P
15 Determining Percent Yields
In all the previous calculations it is assumed that the yield is 100. In the real world however the actual yield is always below 100. Why
Many reactions do not go to completion.
Two or more reaction pathways occur simultaneously.
Some of the product is lost upon isolation.
16 Determining Percent Yields
A 10.0-gram sample of ethanol C2H5OH was reacted with excess CH3COOH to produce 14.8 grams of CH3COOC2H5. What is the percent yield
CH3COOH C2H5OH CH3COOC2H5 H2O
17 Determining Percent Yields
Aspirin can be synthesized as shown below. For the reaction 12.4 grams of C4H6O3 is reacted with an excess of C7H6O3. The amount of aspirin C9H8O4 acquired from the reaction is 26.28 grams. What is the percent yield
2C7H6O3(s) C4H6O3(l) 2C9H8O4(s) H2O(l)
18 Concentrations of Solutions
In many chemical reactions the reactants are that mixed are present as solutions.
Solution consists of a substance (solute) dissolved in another substance (solvent).
DEMO CuSO4(aq) and Ca(NO3)2(aq)
Mix Ca(NO3)2 and Na2(CO3)
Ca(CO3) is the solid. Write the chemical equation.
Solutions are _________ mixtures. Mixing occurs at the molecular level.
Aqueous solutions solvent in ______.
19 Concentration of Solutions
Concentration expresses the amount of solute dissolved in a give amount of solvent or solution.
Percent by mass of solute
What mass of NaCl is required to prepare 75.0 grams of a 5.00 solution of NaCl
DEMO Prepare this solution.
20 Concentrations of Solutions
A 7.50 solution of C6H12O6 contains 50.0 grams of C6H12O6. What is the mass of the solution
Calculate the mass of NaOH in 150.0 mL of an 8.00 solution of NaOH. The density of the solution is 1.09 g/mL.
21 Concentrations of Solutions
Molarity is defined as the number of moles of solute per liter of solution.
DEMO 1.0 and 0.1 M solution of CuSO4 How many grams of CuSO4 required to make 1 liter of these solutions
Prepare 50.0 mL of a 0.100 M solution of aqueous K2Cr2O7.
What is the molarity of a solution that contains 4.91 grams of HNO3 in 500.0 milliliters of solution
22 Concentration of Solutions
Determine the mass of BaSO4 required to produce 250.0 milliliters of a 0.125 M solution of barium sulfate.
Optional The density of a concentrated HCl solution is 1.185 g/mL and it is 36.31 by mass. What is the molarity
23 Solution by Dilution
When a specified amount of concentrated solution is diluted the molarity decreases and the volume increases. The number of moles however remains constant.
Number of moles M1 V1
Same number of moles M2 V2
Therefore M1 V1 M2 V2
24 Solutions by Dilution
M1 V1 M2 V2 This relationship is used to calculate the amount of concentrated solution V1 needed to prepare a diluted solution of given volume V2 and molarity M2.
How would you prepare 25.0 mL of a 8.00 10-3 M solution of K2Cr2O7 from 0.100 M K2Cr2O7
How many mL of 8.0 M sulfuric acid is required to produce 50.0 mL of a 0.150 M solution of sulfuric acid
25 Solutions in Chemical Reactions
In many chemical reaction it is beneficial or even necessary to add reactants in solution. If molarity is known the amount of solute (or reactant) to be added to a reaction can be determined.
What volume of 0.500 M BaCl2 is required to react completely with 4.32 grams of Na2SO4
26 Solutions in Chemical Reactions
What volume of 0.200 M NaOH will react with 50.0 mL of 0.200 M aluminum nitrate What will be the mass of the aluminum hydroxide precipitate
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