Links between patterns of political economy and governance
Rentier economies Elite monopoly on the control of the rent money from oil exploitation by foreign companies redistribution occurs along the lines of kin excluding most citizens.
Generally the main concept used by analysts to describe the relationship between the rulers and the ruled is patrimonialism.
3 State Authority/Legitimacy
Derived from Max Webers typology of state authority 2 types of traditional leadership
o bonds are based on kin/faith and are based on direct allegiance
o strategy of power limited mobilisation
o social bonds between ruler and ruled are mediated by a large bureaucracy
o complex web of relationship of favours and accepted corruption
o leader maintains loyalty by managing different groups seeking his favour for promotion economic advantages or political influence.
Bureaucracies function as the institutionalisation of elites power. A large public sector has several advantages
support application of power over society
provides opportunities to co-opt educated civilian middle classes without giving way to political aspirations
5 Patrimoniality Role of Military
In undemocratic settings however patrimoniality and/or patriarchy are not enough to keep power role of military becomes key
ensures socialisation/co-option of segments of the young population provides apparatus for repression
Particularly strong connection between a high rank in the military and economic advantages
Elite must control the means of violence within society and they do fear a military coup détat.
6 Patrimonialism Civil Society
All non-patronised groups are excluded from political activity civil societies in the ME tend to be weak (systematic repression)
Since late 1980s increasing poverty and lack of opportunities have heightened the crisis of the legitimacy of the state (e.g. Hizbollah)
After 1967 this slowly lead to a change in the symbolic strategies of legitimation away from (Arab) nationalist towards religious symbolism (e.g. Egypt!)
7 Comparative Political Systems
3 main types of non-democratic political systems in the region
Monarchies (traditional religious or combo)
Authoritarian states (revolutionary republics)
Revolutionary Islamic Republic
traditional Jordan Morocco
religious Saudi Arabia
usually some patrimonial/rentier element
little party-based participatory politics
8 Authoritarian states
emerge from anti-colonial struggle / decolonisation process
Legitimacy based on ideology
political aims viz. former colonial powers
Often one-party systems
E.g. Egypt Algeria
9 Revolutionary Islamic Republic
guardianship of the jurisprudent (vilayat-e-faqih)
developed by Khomeini while in exile before the Revolution
supreme religious leadership supported by a council of major religious figures form key to executive and legislative powers
In theory Semi-presidential system with direct election of President Assembly ( Guardian Council)
In reality dual structure with elected reps but vetted by the Council which takes an active interest in politics (e.g. last elections).
System open to women.
Different strategies of legitimisation
Monarchies vs. Republics
Different material bases
bureaucracies role of military/security
Different forms of power
Mass mobilisation vs. demobilisation co-option
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