Genetic Diversity - Measures variety of different versions of same genes.
Species Diversity - Measures number of different kinds of organisms within a community.
Ecological Diversity - Measures richness and complexity of a community.
4 What is Biodiversity
Species Richness - Total number of species in a community.
Species Evenness - Relative abundance of individuals within each species.
5 What Are Species
Genetic Species Concept
Evolutionary Species Concept
6 How Many Species Are There
Currently 1.5 million species identified.
Estimates range between 3-50 million.
May be 30 million insect species.
Invertebrates make up 70 of all known species and probably most of yet to be discovered species.
Tropical rainforests and coral reefs are biodiversity hotspots.
NA and Europe only contain 10-15.
7 Biodiversity Hotspots 8 BENEFITS OF BIODIVERSITY
As many as 80000 edible wild plant species could be utilized by humans.
Drugs and Medicines
More than half of all prescriptions contain some natural product.
Pharmaceutical companies actively prospect tropical countries for products.
9 Benefits of Biodiversity
Soil formation waste disposal air and water purification nutrient cycling solar energy absorption and biogeochemical and hydrological cycles all depend on biodiversity.
Can a system function without all its integral parts
10 Benefits of Biodiversity
Aesthetic and Cultural Benefits
Cultural diversity inextricably linked to biodiversity.
USFWS estimates Americans spend 104 billion annually on wildlife-related recreation.
Ecotourism can be an important form of sustainable economic development.
Existence (intrinsic) value.
11 THREATS TO BIODIVERSITY
Extinction - Elimination of a species.
In undisturbed ecosystems background rate appears to be one species per decade.
In this century human impacts have accelerated that rate causing perhaps hundreds to thousands of extinctions annually.
12 Natural Causes of Extinction
Fossil record suggests more than 99 of all species ever in existence are now extinct.
Most went extinct before humans arrived.
End of Cretaceous - Dinosaurs and 50 of existing genera disappeared.
Permian period - 95 of marine species and nearly half of all plant and animal families died out.
13 Human-Caused Reductions in Biodiversity
Biggest reason for current increase in extinction is habitat loss.
Habitat fragmentation divides populations into isolated groups vulnerable to catastrophic events.
Northern Spotted Owl
14 Habitat Fragmentation 15 Human-Caused Reductions in Biodiversity
Invasive (exotic) organisms thrive in new territory where they are free of usual predators diseases or resource limitations that limited them in original habitat.
Over past 300 years approximately 50000 non-native species have become established in the U.S..
At least 4500 are free-living.
15 cause environmental damage.
16 Human-Caused Reductions in Biodiversity
European green crab
Island ecosystems are susceptible
17 Invasive Species 18 Human-Caused Reductions in Biodiversity
Human population growth
American Passenger Pigeon
19 Human-Caused Reductions in Biodiversity
Commercial Products and Live Specimens
Wildlife smuggling is very profitable.
Leopard fur / Rhinoceros horns
U.S. Annual pet trade in wild species
2 million reptiles
1 million amphibians and mammals
128000000 tropical fish
Cyanide released above coral reefs.
20 Human-Caused Reductions in Biodiversity 21 ENDANGERED SPECIES MANAGEMENT
Hunting and Fishing Laws
By 1890s most states had enacted some hunting and fishing laws.
General idea was pragmatic not aesthetic or moral preservation.
In general regulations have been extremely successful.
22 Endangered Species Act
Established in 1973.
Endangered are those considered in imminent danger of extinction.
Threatened are those likely to become endangered at least locally in the near future.
Vulnerable are those that are naturally rare or have been locally depleted to a level that puts them at risk.
23 Endangered Species Act
ESA regulates a wide range of activities involving endangered species
Taking (harassing harming pursuing hunting shooting killing capturing or collecting) either accidentally or on purpose.
Importing into or Exporting out of the U.S.
Transporting or Shipping
24 Endangered Species Act
Currently U.S. has 1300 species on its Endangered and Threatened lists and about 250 candidate species waiting for consideration.
Number reflects more about human interests than actual status.
Invertebrates make up 75 of all species but only 9 of T/E list.
Listing process is extremely slow.
25 Recovery Plans
Once a species is listed USFWS is required to propose a recovery plan detailing the rebuilding of the species to sustainable levels.
Total cost of all current plans 5 billion.
Some have been very successful.
Opponents have continually tried to require economic costs and benefits be incorporated into planning.
26 Private Land and Critical Habitat
Eighty percent of habitat for more than half of all listed species is on non-public property.
Supreme Court has ruled destroying habitat equates to taking.
USFWS has been negotiating Habitat Conservation Plans (HCP) with private landowners.
Landowners allowed to harvest resources as long as species benefit.
27 Reauthorizing ESA
ESA officially expired in 1992.
Proposals for new ESA generally fall into two general categories
Versions that encourage ecosystem and habitat protection rather than individual species.
Safe harbor policies that allow exceptions to critical habitat designations.
28 Habitat Protection
Latest management strategy is preservation of ecosystems supporting maximum biological diversity rather than species-by-species approach.
Gap Analysis - Conservationists and wildlife managers look for unprotected landscapes that are rich in species.
Broad-scale holistic approach.
29 (No Transcript) 30 International Wildlife Treaties
Convention on International Trade In Endangered Species (CITES) - 1975.
Regulated trade in living specimens and products derived from listed species.
31 CAPTIVE BREEDING
Breeding programs in zoos and botanical gardens are one method of saving threatened species.
Repositories of genetic diversity.
Most mammals in NA zoos are now produced from captive-breeding programs.
Some zoos now participating in reintroduction programs.
32 Captive Breeding
Zoos have limited space for captive breeding.
How many can / should we save
Ultimate problem is that natural habitat may disappear while we are conserving the species itself.
Another alternative is to attempt to save species in the wild.
Provide funding for protection in native habitats.
Biodiversity and the Species Concept
Benefits of Biodiversity
Threats to Biodiversity
Natural and Human Caused Reductions
Endangered Species Management
34 (No Transcript)
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