that explain and predict the behavior of the universe.
an organized body of knowledge about the natural world. by answering questions andsolving problems
3 Why is SCIENCE so important
4 Why is SCIENCE so important
It is all around us
It solves problems
It improves everyday life
It uncovers new opportunities
Vaccines Electricity Space Exploration Better crop 5 Main Branches of Natural Science
Study of all livings things their environment and how they interact with each other and within their environment
Biology microbiology anatomy physiologyecology
8 PHYSICS studies the interaction of matter and its environment in terms of forces and energy. Electricity magnetism motion have developed jet airplanes cell phones PC. 9 CHEMISTRY studies the properties of matter and how it can be changed into different materials. Medicines foods clothings perfumes artificial skin 10 EARTH
Study of all changes occurring on Earth AND in space.
11 Why does EARTH science include SPACE
12 Why does EARTH science include SPACE
Astronomers study the past of the Universe in order to understand present cosmological events and possibly predict future ones that could affect Earth.
As well the knowledge gained from studying other celestial bodies terrestrial -earth-like- planets or jovian -giant gas- planets provide a better understanding of the Earth itself.
its features the internal and external processes causing them and even its origin
13 EARTH SCIENCES
Are crucial to environmental survival
It is a blend of several branches/fields
Study of the makeup of the Earth. The processes/forces that form and change those materials origin history structure of the SOLID earth
Study of the oceans covering 70 of the planet. salty water creatures physical and chemical properties impact of human activities
Marine Biology Physics Chemistry Geology
17 Pipeline wave North Shore Oahu 18 METEOROLOGY
Study of the air surrounding the planet forces and processes causing the atmosphere to change responsible for weather Weather prediction factors affecting earths climate.
DIFFERENCE BETWEEN WEATHER AND CLIMATE 19 ATMOSPHERIC CONDITIONS WEATHER CLIMATE LOCAL SHORT TERM AVERAGE WEATHER AFFECTING LARGER AREAS STABLE OVER LONG PERIOD OF TIME 20 ASTRONOMY
Study of the Universe beyond the earths atmosphere or its outermost layer app. 700km above the surface formation location and relationship b/t the Earth and other celestial bodies.
COSMOLOGY study the Universe as a whole in its totality. 21 Milky Way over Utah 22 GOMA video clips 23 Environmental Science
It is a relatively new field of ES
Study of the ways in which humans their industries and technologies interact with the environment.
Topics or issues covered are
Use of natural resources 1
24 What area of Earth science is likely to involve the study of climate
25 ANALOGY a relationship between 2 pairs of wordsWhich pair best complete the following analogy Earth science astronomy
Surrounding Earth beyond Earth
26 4 EARTHS SYSTEMS GEOSPHERE
SOLID Earth or
Rigid outer shell including the continental granite and the oceanic denser basalt crusts and the solid uppermost layer of the mantle peridotite
LIQUID Earth or
Water from oceans seas lakes rivers glaciers.
Water in gaseous form in the atmosphere is NOT included.
27 4 EARTHS SYSTEMS ATMOSPHERE
GASEOUS Earth or
Blanket of gases surrounding the planet necessary for respiration of most living things for protection against harmful solar radiation for maintaining a temperature suitable for life
All living things and the physical environment supporting them from the depths of the oceans to the lower layer of the atmosphere troposphere a few kilometers above the earths surface
BIOSPHERE 28 DYNAMIC EARTH
Earth is in constant state of changes
Some are slow and gradual
WEATHERING and EROSION
Some are rapid and sporadic
VOLCANIC ERUPTIONS/EARTHQUAKES 29 Differential weathering Bryce Canyon Utah 30 Spheroidal weathering Alabama Hills 31 Fire fountains eruptions Big Island of Hawaii 32 Lava flows continuously into the ocean Kilauea Hawaii. 33 ANALOGY a relationship between 2 pairs of wordsWhich pair best complete the following analogy Meteorology atmosphere
34 How do scientists conduct their investigations
Observing and recording those observations
Setting up experiments that test the effects of one thing on another
Building model and testing it to see how it acts
representation /idea to create explanations of how we think some part of the world works 35 MODEL OF THE UNIVERSE Greek and Arabs Earth at the center 17th century Copernicus/Galileo Sun at the center planets revolving around it. The Sun is even not centered in our galaxy the Milky Way. The model is constantly being revised to include shape number of moons planets as technological advances allow us to observe more directly our universe 36 (No Transcript) 37 MODEL OF THE FORMATION OF THE UNIVERSE 38 MODEL OF AN ATOM 39 Make sure to take note of the different situations when a model is necessary. MODELS 40 SOMETIMES DIRECT EXPERIMENTATION IS NOT POSSIBLE SCIENTISTS MUST RELY ON MODEL / REPRESENTATION When it is too small to see ATOMS When it is too large to recreate WEATHER METEORITES IMPACT When it is too dangerousPLANE CRASH When it would be too expensive or too time-consuming. 41 How do we make observations
Using our Senses
Using tools and instruments can you list some
Activities 43 IMPORTANT DEFINITIONS
Statement based on objective and verifiable observations made by MANY.
It does NOT prove or explain anything.
A statement formulated from prior knowledge observations and that can be tested.
Generally accepted explanation of observations done about a particular concept or of a natural phenomenon why / how something does happen / did happen
A theory is a highly successful hypothesis.
All theories make predictions.
All theories can be tested.
Result Any scientific theory is subject to change as our ability to make tests or make observations improves with time.
45 IMPORTANT DEFINITIONS
Accepted description of what happens or did happen in nature
True there have never been repeatable contradicting observations
Universal appear to apply everywhere in the Universe
E.g. Law of Gravity several theories have been proposed to explain how it works
46 THEORY -- LAW recap
Like our scientific knowledge Theories are dynamic and subject to change.
It remains valid as long as it explains prior
findings and is useful in predicting new ones.
Theories may undergo slight change or total abandonment when confronted with
Law does NOT change.
FEW theories FEWER laws
47 The main branches of natural science are
Physics and Chemistry
Biology zoology and ecology
Medicine and agriculture
Life Physical and Earth science
48 A scientific theory is an explanation that
Has been published in a journal or book
Does not allow predictions
Is constantly questioned and can change
A scientist has tested with an experiment
49 Science is best known for
Relying on tradition alone
Using only a single reference
Using guesswork at all times
50 What do scientists use to simulate conditions in the natural world
Trial and error
Conceptual and physical models
Geology and meteorology
Books and records
51 A scientific law is
The same as a hypothesis
A description of a natural event
An explanation of a scientific observation
The conclusion of a scientific experiment
52 Chemistry is
A branch of Earth science that studies physical nature and history of the Earth
A branch of physical science that studies matter and its changes
A branch of physical science that studies matter and energy
A branch of biology that studies the balance in nature.
53 A scientific model is a
Small building used to conduct experiments
Mathematical statement of a theory
Representation of a real event or object
New theory that takes place of an incorrect one.
54 Areas of study for geologists might include
The atmosphere climate and weather patterns
Earths crust forces within Earth and fossils
Chemistry physics and math
Diet nutrition and exercise
55 Which of the following sphere represents the solid Earth
56 Scientific theories can be changed or replaced when
New technology is invented
Scientists decide to work on different problems
Scientists make models of events or objects
New discoveries are made
57 ANALOGY a relationship between 2 pairs of wordsWhich pair best complete the following analogy Environmental science pollution
Discipline field of study
Earth science geology
58 Which question cannot be answered by an experiment MODEL
Does penicillin kill Salmonella bacteria
Is rabies caused by a virus
Did a comet impact kill the dinosaurs
Can radiation cause cancer
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