1 History of the Basque language and culture Basque Country nowadays geographical and political regions
The Basque Autonomous Community
The Autonomous Community of Navarre
The three provinces within the French state.
2 Origins to the Middle Ages
Many archaeological sites to prove Palaeolithic existence. Romans and Greeks recorded existence of people and language from the C7th.
The Romans Visigoths Muslims Franks and Normans all tried to conquer the Basque country and absorb their culture all failed largely to integrate these people.
Were a people of confederate organization. The Duchy of Vasconia created in C7th and the Kindom of Navarre in C9th ruled by a monarchy for four centuries.
Navarre was the last region in the Iberian Peninsula to fall under Castillan control.
The Spanish Crown conceded each region in Spain the right to maintain juridical and legislative independence with a set of charters and statutes called fueros.
1545 - the first book written in Basque of which we have knowledge by the poet Bernard Dechepare.
Basque has always had a minority status. Even when most Basques were monolingual the Basque language did not serve high functions.
Eg.official documents were traditionally written in Latin or the Romance languages.
The existence of at least four varieties of the language made it even harder to promote.
From this history we can see that a sense of separate cultural and political identity has existed for many centuries.
Augustin Chano (1811-58)
saw all Basque history as a history of national defence against outside encroachment.
The first to mention Euskal Herria as an oppressed nationality
3 Some useful words
Euskera The Basque language
Euzkadi word invented by Arana meaning the place of Basque
Euskaldunak speakers of Basque
Batua Standardised version of Basque
Euskal-Herria country of Euskara
Euskaldunberri new Basque speaker
4 Middle ages to 1936
Basque Country last region in Spain to maintain their fueros.
1876 Second Carlist War. Abolition of fueros and Basque autonomy.
Industrialisation Modernisation Nationalism - Racialism Appeared on the scene together.
1890s PNV (partido nacionalista vasco) founded by Sabino Arana.
A political isolationist and racialist nationalism.
a) high immigration to the cities and huge social change
b) poor diffusion of the language
c) Difficulty faced by prospective learners
d) Unavailability of other national symbols
Also heavily linked to Catholicism with aims to provide welfare to the poor.
- Half-forgotten and derided by natives as anti-modern just at the time when the Catalan revival was happening. - Was generally lost to the regional elite. Not even leaders of the PNV were regular users.
As a result language was side-lined and did not become a symbol of unity for nationalism.
1918 The Congress of Basque Studies acting independently of politics the group of intellectuals aimed towards language reform.
- The Basque Language Academy - was created aiming to work on a corpus of Euskera and its status.
Language planning arose in conjunction with a host of social concerns public health schools social insurance urban planning etc.
Fear of communism Post-war depression Ruling classes support for centralist governments in the hope of quelling working class unrest. PNV turned to away from defensive nationalism to more dynamic anti-capitalist ideology. Although the precepts established by Arana dominated up until the Civil War Remained crucial in the 1960s when Basque nationalism turned to Marxism.
1923-30 Primo de Rivera dictatorship.
Repression of nationalist parties boosted nationalist feelings.
Fall of the dictatorship both Catalan and Basque nationalism emerged with renewed vigour.
1930-36 PNV became a Republican nationalist party under the Spanish Republic and governed the autonomous government installed in the nine months before the outbreak of the Civil War.
6 1) Aberri Eguna (día Nacional Vasco)
Domingo de Resurrección de 1882.
Sabino Arana fundador del Partido Nacionalista Vasco (PNV) y padre del nacionalismo vasco.
7 Evolución del nacionalismo vasco
El PNV apoya al gobierno republicano el cual en Octubre de 1936 aprueba el Estatuto de Autonomía del País Vasco. José María de Aguirre (presidente del País Vasco) promueve la lengua vasca establece el orden y proporciona y distribuye comida a la población.
Con la llegada de la Guerra Civil el PNV se divide
Aquellos que van al exilio.
Aquellos que permanecen en el País Vasco (los más tradicionalistas y separatistas).
1945-1947 tras finalizar la II Guerra Mundial cuentan con el apoyo de los Aliados para luchar contra el fascismo.
1948-1952 con la llegada de la Guerra Fría los americanos se muestran más tolerantes con el régimen franquista. En consecuencia el nacionalismo vasco queda desprotegido y decae.
1953-1960 nacimiento del nuevo nacionalismo.
8 Agrupaciones y actividades nacionalistas
Emakume Abertzale Batzar grupo de mujeres que llevan a cabo actividades culturales y caritativas.
Euzko Gaztedi (EGI) Juventudes Vascas. Utilizan la violencia en contra de Franco.
Confederación de Entidades Vascas de América.
Partido Nacionalista Vasco (PNV)
Interés por la difusión de la cultura (música arte y folklore) la lengua y el nacionalismo vasco.
En Septiembre de 1955 publicó un artículo sobre los deberes que tenía un buen nacionalista vasco
a) Acudir y participar activamente en las reuniones del PNV.
b) Enseñar la cultura y lengua vasca en casa.
c) Difundir y hacer propaganda del nacionalismo vasco.
Euzkadi ta Askatasuna (ETA)
1952 fundación en la Universidad de Deusto por siete estudiantes.
Libro Vasconia escrito por Federico Krutwig.
9 Ikastolas (escuelas vascas)
1950 en casas e iglesias de manera clandestina.
Se prohíbe la enseñanza del euskera.
1970 son pocos los niños que acuden a las ikastolas no sólo por miedo sino también por el alto coste.
Finales 1970 se considera que las ikastolas han conseguido que la lengua vasca sea considerada como una lengua capaz de adaptarse a la sociedad moderna y tener un papel esencial en la educación.
10 Represión por parte de Franco
1937 caída de Bilbao. Supresión de la lengua vasca cierre de universidades vascas prohibición de sociedades culturales vascas en los registros civiles los nombres vascos se cambian por nombres españoles se queman libros escritos en vasco.
Se controla la distribución de alimentos a los nacionalistas vascos no se les permite tener propiedades alrededor de mil niños vascos fueron enviados a Rusia 3500 vascos emigraron a México Venezuela y Argentina.
1968 Ley General de Educación. Se legalizan las ikastolas y se autoriza la enseñanza de lenguas regionales. Se reanudan los sermones en vasco y se permiten las agrupaciones de música y danza.
1975 protección de las lenguas regionales siempre y cuando se siga considerando el español como lengua oficial.
11 INSTITUTIONAL ARRANGEMENTS
Spanish Constitution 1978 (Section 3 preamble)
-Spanish is the official language of the State
-The other Spanish languages shall also be official in the respective Self-governing communities in accordance with their Statutes
Basque Government formed in 1979
Basque Statute of Autonomy 1979 (Article 6)
-Euskera the language of the Basque People shall like Spanish have the status of an official language in Euskadi. All its inhabitants have the right to know and use both languages
-The Royal Academy of the Basque Language is the official advisory institution in matters regarding Euskera.
12 INSTITUTIONAL ARRANGEMENTS
HABE (Instituto para la Euskaldunización y Alfabetización de Adultos)
-Set up by the Basque Government in 1981
Attached to the Basque Department of Culture it was created by the Ley 29/1983
-With its creation the teaching of Basque took a new dimension eg he increased production of Basque teaching materials
-Various functions to carry out its mission eg the design and implementation of the curriculum for the teaching of Basque to adults
Elbide (Servicio para la Garantía de Derechos Lingüísticos)
-Set up by the Viceconsejería de Política Lingüística as a result of the Decreto 150/2008
-Its aim is to achieve a real balance between the two official languages of the Basque Country
-It does this by ensuring that everybody has the possibility to live normally within the limits of their language whatever it may be
13 INSTITUTIONAL ARRANGEMENTS
Euskaltzaindia (The Academy for the Basque Language)
-Made the official consultative body of the Basque language by the Statute of Autonomy 1979 (Article 8)
-The work of Euskaltzaindia is concerned with both the corpus and the status of the language
-Art.1. The aim of this institution is to watch over the Basque language paying close attention to its promotion both philologically and socially.
-Art.2. Accordingly the Academy deals with both these areas in their respective sections the Research Section and the Tutelary Section with members belonging to both.
-Creation of Batua the standardised version of the Basque language
EAS (System of Linguistic Indicators of Euskal Herria)
-Designed to provide local government agents and organisations with detailed information about the status of the Basque language within the Basque country
-This information is necessary in order to determine and evaluate the performance of the linguistic policies and initiatives underway and to be able to adopt in each particular area the measures required to develop and improve these.
-Linguistic indicators must take in consideration the factors present in each individual context the operation costs and results of the aforementioned linguistic policies and initiatives and determine in what areas these may be lacking.
14 Language Planning Measures put in place post-Franco
Ley Básica de la Normalización del Uso del Euskera / Law for the Normalisation of the Use of Basque 1982.
- the right of students or their parents to choose the medium of instruction is established
- pre-university students must receive language classes in the official language not used as medium of instruction
- the Basque Government is to define the bilingual teaching models to be offered to parents
- the Basque Government will take measures with regard to teachers language competence plans of study and teacher training colleges in order to be able to satisfy parental demand for Basque-medium and language teaching.
15 Language Planning Measures put in place post-Franco
Three linguistic models introduced into education system as a result of the 1983 law which established the use of Basque at pre-university levels in the BAC. Children can complete their studies in one of the three following models
Spanish as teaching medium Basque as a subject (4 to 5 hours per week).
Basque as teaching medium Spanish as a subject (4 to 5 hours per week).
Both Spanish and Basque as medium subject.
In this model the first three years of school are generally taught through Basque. At the age of six - the first year of primary education they start to learn the readingwriting process and mathematics in Spanish.
Model X - not official and has practically disappeared.
Spanish is used as the teaching medium and no Basque is present.
This was the regular programme during Francos regime.
16 Which Model has become the most Popular
The figures for students enrolled in Model D have increased while those enrolled in Model A have decreased.
1983-84 Model A 72.8 Model B 10.5 Model D 16.5
2002-03 Model A 30.6 Model B 22.5 Model D 46.4
Lasagabaster D. and Huguet A. Multilingualism in European Bilingual Contexts Language Use and Attitudes (Clevedon England Buffalo Multilingual Matters 2007) p.69
Euskal Ikasmaterialgintza (EIMA) programme for primary and secondary schools
The Department of Education subsidises the publication of school materials (printed audio audio-visual computer programmes and CD-rom) so as to ensure that parents choosing Basque as a medium for the education of their children do not have to spend more on learning materials as a result of the smaller market
17 University Education
The Spanish Ley de Orgánica de Universidades approved in 2001 has been applied to the Basque Autonomous Community.
Universities in the BAC must
Promote the defence study and promotion of the Basque cultural heritage.
Promote the Basque Language.
Introduce Basque in all areas of knowledge so as to contribute to the normalisation of the use of Basque.
18 Failures of the Education System
One of the weaknesses of Basque in education is its degree of dependence on non-native speakers
The demand for teaching depends on parental choice there is no guarantee that demand will continue to expand.
The use of Basque in education is linked to nationalist politics. A decline in nationalist strength could eventually lead to stagnation or some decline in the offer of Basque language teaching.
19 Failures of the Education System
The role of the school is vital but the production of competent second-language speakers is not enough to ensure the survival of Basque it cannot improve the situation on its own Institutional action alone without the support of social movements is incapable of carrying out this task successfully. Lasagabaster D. and Huguet A. Multilingualism in European Bilingual Contexts. p.67
20 Politics of the Basque Country after Franco.
After Francos repression of Basque culture and language the people began to want to recover them. Legalisation and proliferation of Ikastolas Euskaltegis (Basque schools for adults) Bertsolaritza classes (a type of singing in Basque).
First general elections in 1979 saw EAJ-PNV (Basque Nationalist Party) and Herri Batasuna (Peoples Unity) received the most votes.
21 Politics of the Basque Country after Franco.
Elections have generally followed this trend ever since with a gradual increase in votes for the three main national parties (PP PSOE and IU)
22 Politics of the Basque Country after Franco. 23 Politics of the Basque Country after Franco.
HB a coalition of more radical political groups which called for the KAS Alternative which entailed
- Total amnesty for supporters/members of ETA.
- Recognition of Basque national sovereignty with the right to form an
independent nation state if so desired
- Expulsion of all Spanish police forces (Guardia Civil etc.) from Euskadi.
- Autonomous powers over social economic and political system.
They were also a lot more radical in their support for the Basque language- wanted an education system completely in Basque as in Catalunya. They pushed for the creation of more Ikastolas Euskaltegis Basque-speaking youth groups etc.
In 1998 during ETAs temporary truce HB decided not to stand however most of its members did stand in the form of a temporary party Euskal Herritarrok which denounced violence.
Later EH would reform and become Batasuna. In 2002 however the party was declared illegal under the Ley Orgánica de Partidos Políticos as it was considered by some to be the political branch of ETA.
24 Politics of the Basque Country after Franco.
PNV less radical. They fully condemn ETA and are more moderate on the issue of education in Basque.The Lehendakari (Basque President) has always been from PNV.
Current lehendakari Juan José Ibarretxe. Ibarretxe is famous as the author of the Ibarretxe Plan- new Statute of Autonomy. Its key points were
-The peoples right to self-determination (i.e. independence)- Basques only part
of Spain by their own free choice.
-Separation of Basque Courts from Spanish courts.
-Creation of Basque citizens and Basque nationals with dual Spanish-Basque nationality possible.
Plan was approved by the Basque parliament.
In 2005 the plan was sent to the Spanish Congreso and was rejected 313 votes to 29.
25 Politics of the Basque Country after Franco.
Batasuna rejected it as it did not go far enough only encompassing three of the seven Basque provinces and allowing coexistence of Basque and Spanish nationality within Euskadi.
ETAs violence and Herri Batasunas failure to denounce it have all served to potentially damage the status of the Basque language- radical Basque nationalists defend and speak in Basque and the two may become associated and dissuade its use. This does not happen for example in Catalunya and Galicia.
26 Effectiveness Of Language Planning Measures 27 Effectiveness Of Language Planning Measures 28 Effectiveness Of Language Planning Measures 29 Effectiveness Of Language Planning Measures 30 Effectiveness Of Language Planning Measures 31 Effectiveness Of Language Planning Measures 32 Effectiveness Of Language Planning Measures 33 Effectiveness Of Language Planning Measures 34 Effectiveness Of Language Planning Measures 35 Future Developments
El Gobierno ha puesto en marcha una serie de planes para incrementar el uso del euskera en el mundo laboral.
El programa LanHitz es una iniciativa destinada a incrementar el uso y la presencia del euskera también en el mundo del trabajo.
36 Future Developments
Marco de Referencia Estándar
El Marco de Referencia Estándar también denominado EME es un cuadro de ayuda en el que se encuentran todos los campos propios de cualquier empresa con relación al lenguaje.
37 Future Developments
Plan General de Promoción del Uso del Euskera (EBPN) para seguir avanzando en la normalización lingüística.
Tres objetivos básicos
-La transmisión del euskera
-Calidad de la lengua.
Certificados que acrediten que las empresas llevan a cabo estos planes correctamente.
38 Future Developments
Think Gaur Euskadi 2020 un proyecto que pretende conseguir una educación trilingüe y dar a conocer la cultura vasca.
Continuar mejorando en materia educativa
-Cualificación lingüística del profesorado
The Franco years and beyond Clark Robert P.
The Basques the Catalans and Spain Conversi Daniele
Divided Nations class politics and Nationalism in the Basque Country and Catalonia Díez Medrano Juan
Urla Jacqueline 1993. Cultural politics in an age of statistics. Numbers nations and the making of Basque Identity. American Ethnologist 204 pp.818-843
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